Searchable Index of Genera & Species Referenced

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reef type / : [description] 1. section on reef types. [Photo]

fringing reef / : [description] 1. description of fringing reefs. [Photo]

fringing reef / : [description] 1. video of corals on fringing reef in Grand Cayman Island. [Video]

barrier reef / : [] 1. description of barrier reef in Belize. [Photo]

atoll reef / : [] 1. description of deep-sea type of atoll reefs. [Photo, Drawing]

atoll reef shelf / : [] 1. description of shelf type of atoll reef. [Photo]

patch reef / : [] 1. description of a patch reef in Little Cayman Island. [Photo]

fish / : [description, diversity] 1. section describing diversity of Caribbean reef fishes. [Text only]

fish / : [description, diversity] 1. video of fishes swimming over reef. [Video]

colour vision / : [quiz] 1. quiz on which reef organisms can see in colour. [Table of Data]

colour / : [creation] 1. start of section on how colours are created in reef organisms. []

silverside / : [camouflage, reflection] 1. series of illustrations to show how the reflective bodies of fishes can provide a mirror-like camouflaging. [Photo, Drawing]

silverside / : [camouflage, reflection, platelet] 1. silver-sided fishes have reflective units in their skin called platelets that act like mirror-reflectors. [Photo, Drawing]

coloration / : [function] 1. brief review of how colours in reef fishes act in camouflage. [Text only]

coral / : [diversity] 1. examples of diversity of Caribbean corals. [Video]

gorgonian / : [diversity] 1. examples of diversity of Caribbean gorgonians. [Video]

mangrove shrimp / : [diversity] 1. found on roots of mangrove trees. [Photo]

silverside / : [diversity] 1. schooling amongst mangrove roots. [Photo]

mangrove / : [diversity] 1. loss of mangrove forests to logging, salt production, and agriculture. [Drawing]

mangrove / : [habitat, stocks] 1. world losses of mangrove forests. [Graph]

mangrove / : [habitat, stocks] 1. list of features of value lost by mangrove deforestation. [Graph]

sea squirt / : [diversity] 1. examples of diversity of Caribbean tunicates. [Video]

mimicry / : [coloration, function, mimicry] 1. quiz relating to the experimental design of a study on possible mimicry in south-Pacific filefishes Paraluteres prionurus. [Text only]

colour / : [perception] 1. differential colour attenuation with water depth. [Drawing]

reef fish / : [colour, perception, vision, ultraviolet] 1. many coral-reef fishes can perceive ultraviolet wavelengths. Losey et al. 2003 [Graph]

colour vision / : [camouflage, coloration, function, ultraviolet, vision] 1. red-coloured shrimps might stand out at depth to a predator with ultraviolet perception. Losey et al. 2003 []

colour vision / : [function, perception, ultraviolet, vision] 1. UV wavelengths in water are polarised, thus possibly giving special information on patterns to a UV-sensitive fish. Marshall et al. 2003 [Photo]

colour vision / : [function, perception, ultraviolet, vision, protection] 1. UV-sensitive fishes may be able to avoid regions of potentially dangerous UV irradiation. Marshall et al. 2003 [Photo]

colour vision / : [function, perception, ultraviolet, vision, protection] 1. UV reflection by a fish may give it a sort of camouflaging. Losey et al. 2003 [Photo]

shiner / : [coloration] 1. reflectivity derived from white crystals of guanine within iridiphores in the skin. [Photo]

colour / : [diversity] 1. video showing variety of colours of coral-reef organisms. [Video]

colour / : [video courtesy] 1. video courtesy Andy Stockbridge, Belize. [Video]

colour / : [function] 1. quiz on all possible functions of colours in coral-reef organisms. Marshall et al. 2003 [Table of Data]

colour / : [function] 1. list of most probable functions of colours in coral-reef organisms. 2. most relate to social and defense functions. [Text only]

ultraviolet / : [protection, ultraviolet] 1. UV irradiation may be harmful to shallow-water seaweeds and corals. [Drawing]

shiner / : [protection, reflection, ultraviolet] 1. reflectivity of scales may help protect against harmful UV irradiation. [Photo]

warning coloration / : [coloration, defense, toxicity, warning] 1. bright colours of reef organisms may warn of toxicity. [Video]

reef fish / : [coloration, toxicity, warning] 1. an exercise to sort a number of reef fishes into categories of toxic and non-toxic based solely on coloration. [Photo]

reef fish / : [coloration, function, toxicity, warning] 1. sorting of reef fishes by colour does not support the idea that coloration in fishes is primarily for defense. [Photo]

zoanthid / : [coloration, function, toxicity, warning] 1. zoanthids are toxic and may be warningly coloured. [Video]

zoanthid / : [coloration, function, toxicity, warning] 1. zoanthids are toxic and may be warningly coloured. [Video]

reef / : [competition] 1. video showing a crowded reef. [Video]

reef / : [competition] 1. video showing a crowded reef. [Video]

reef / : [competition] 1. video courtesy Andy Stockbridge, Belize. Stockbridge [Video]

reef / : [competition, space, preemptive] 1. example of space competition of the preemptive type. [Video]

reef / : [competition, preemptive, space] 1. example of preemptive competition for space in a crowded Caribbean reef. [Photo]

sea anemone / : [nematocyst, stimulus] 1. crude demonstration of stimuli important in eliciting discharge of nematocysts (stinging cells) . [Drawing]

ciguatera / : [cartoon, ciguatoxin, poison] 1. discussion between a blue chromis and yellow-tail damselfish regarding relative sensitivities to ciguatoxin poisoning. [Drawing]

ciguatera / : [treatment] 1. treatment for ciguatera poisoning. [Text only]

zooplankton / : [camouflage, defense] 1. many zooplankters are transparent - a good camouflaging strategy in clear water. [Photo]

sound / : [defense] 1. sounds created by fish may act to confuse a predator and/or warn conspecifics of danger. [Video]

sound / : [defense] 1. sounds of various Caribbean reef fishes courtesy of the Graduate School. Graduate School of Oceanography, University of Rhode Island []

sound / : [function] 1. sounds made by fishes may function in finding mates, predator alarm, navigation, or territorial demarcation. [Text only]

school / : [defense, survival] 1. open-water schooling actually lowers the probability of being located by a predator. [Video]

school / : [video courtesy] 1. video courtesy Andy Stockbridge, Belize. Stockbridge [Video]

school / : [defense, heterospecific, school] 1. illustration showing the disadvantage of a school being heterospecific; that is, with mixed species within. 2. predators are presented with a strong visual stimulus. [Drawing]

school / : [defense, heterospecific, school] 1. illustration showing the disadvantage of a school being heterospecific; that is, containing mixed species. 2. predators are presented with a strong visual stimulus. [Drawing]

school / : [heterospecific, survival] 1. lists of best and worst strategies for an heterospecific school-member to adopt with respect to its continued survival. [Text only]

school / : [function, quiz, school] 1. ideas relating to functions of a school additional to the main one of minimising predation. Weihs 1975 [Text only]

reef / : [defense, predation] 1. general views of, and comments on, reef fishes and potential risk of predation. [Video]

reef / : [video courtesy] 1. video courtesy of Andy Stockbridge, Belize. Stockbridge [Video]

fish / : [behaviour, description, dawn/dusk changeover] 1. explanation of dawn and dusk changeovers. [Drawing, Graph]

pufferfish / : [cartoon, description, post-ingestive, conditioning] 1. description of how post-ingestive conditioning works in the learning process of a predator eating a toxic pufferfish. [Drawing]

tunicate / : [defense, poison, toxicity, larva] 1. larval stages of some tunicates may have toxic flesh for defense. [Photo]

tunicate / : [defense, poison, toxicity, larva] 1. larval stages of some tunicates may have toxic flesh for defense. 2. eggs and larvae of only a few vertebrates have toxic flesh (toads, pufferfishes, and some sculpins). Orians & Janzen 1974 [Photo]

tunicate / : [defense, poison, toxicity, larva] 1. larval stages of some tunicates may have toxic flesh for defense. 2. eggs and larvae of only a few vertebrates have toxic flesh (toads, pufferfishes, and some sculpins). Gladstone 1987 [Photo]

reef / : [behaviour] 1. general comments about visibility, or lack of, of motile reef invertebrates during the day. [Video]

reef / : [video courtesy] 1. video courtesy Andy Stockbridge, Belize. [Video]

invertebrate / : [] 1. hunting for motile invertebrates in a crevice. [Video]

cartoon / : [behaviour, defense, nocturnal] 1. fanciful conversation between a few daytime-resting invertebrates in a crevice. [Drawing]

invertebrate / : [chemical, defense, toxicity] 1. video of reef with comments about defensive toxicity of most cnidarians. [Video]

cnidaria / : [chemical, defense, nematocyst, toxicity] 1. common defense of cnidarians such as anemones, gorgonians, and corals is nematocysts. [Video]

sponge / : [defense, morphology, quiz, spicule] 1. quiz to differentiate spicule function in a sponge. [Photo]

sea rod gorgonian / : [defense, predation, spicule, structure] 1. spicules may provide defense against potential predators. [Photo]

seaweed / : [chemical, defense, toxic] 1. overview video of reef seaweeds, many of which contain toxic chemicals. [Video]

coral / : [nutrition] 1. overview of reef with query about nutrition of corals. [Video]

coral / : [nutrition, video courtesy] 1. video courtesy Andy Stockbridge, Belize. Stockbridge []

thermocline / : [description] 1. description of tropical thermoclines and their effects on water clarity. [Photo, Graph]

productivity / : [description] 1. satellite photograph showing chlorophyll content of world oceans. 2. comment on productivity. [Photo]

batfish / : [ambush predator, behaviour, morphology, nutrition, ram suction] 1. description of ram-suction type of gulping when taking in a prey. Wainwright & Richard 1995 [Drawing]

reef / : [behaviour, nocturnal, nutrition] 1. comment on general absence of motile invertebrates from the reef during daytime, when visual predators are active. [Video]

reef fish / : [diet, nutrition, predation, predator] 1. chase by fishes over the reef. [Video]

reef fish / : [video courtesy] 1. video courtesy Andy Stockbridge, Belize. Stockbridge [Video]

fish / : [mouth, prey, allometry] 1. study of relationships of relative mouth size to prey-size eaten. 2. concepts of allometry and isometry explained. Karpouzi & Stergiou 2003 [Graph]

shortnose batfish / : [diet, mouth, nutrition] 1. usess anterior projection or rostrum to dig for prey in the soil. Gabron & Castro 1999 [Photo]

sponge / : [experiment, predator] 1. large experiment in Key Largo, Florida assessing features of sponges that are attractive to 18 species of reef fishes. 2. most eaten are sponges that lack chemical defenses. [Photo, Drawing]

fish / : [diet, herbivory, nutrition] 1. general comments about diets of herbivorous fishes. [Video]

fish / : [description, herbivory, nutrition] 1. about 10% of Caribbean reef fishes are strictly herbivorous. Sierra et al. 2001 [Text only]

fish / : [description, herbivory, nutrition] 1. about 25% of Caribbean reef fishes are strictly or partly herbivorous. DeLoach 1999 [Text only]

fish / : [diet, morphology, mouth, nutrition] 1. quiz on a fish species' diet based on mouth morphology. [Photo]

bacteria / : [photo courtesy, water flow] 1. photograph courtesy John Smit, University of British Columbia. Smit [Photo]

blue green alga / : [cyanobacteria, nutrition] 1. eaten by few reef organisms, such as opisthobranch molluscs. [Photo]

tunicate / : [feeding, nutrition, water flow, bacteria] 1. description of feeding . [Drawing]

coral / : [bleaching, description] 1. facts and figures for Caribbean-wide bleaching event 1987-1988. Williams & Bunkley-Williams 1988 [Drawing]

coral / : [bleaching] 1. facts and figures about major Caribbean-wide bleaching event 1987-1988. Hayes & Goreau 1998 []

coral / : [bleaching] 1. facts and figures about major Caribbean-wide bleaching event 1987-1988. McField 1999 []

amphipod / : [diet, herbivory, nutrition] 1. several species live on sargassum weed, possibly feeding on it or on other plants growing as epiphytes on the weed. Martin-Smith 1992 [Photo]

snail / : [description, feeding, nutrition, radula] 1. description of the workings of a radula. [Drawing]

reef / : [detritus, nutrition] 1. contribution of various reef organisms to overall detrital "load" after their deaths. Wilson et al. 2003 []

coprophagy / : [coprophagy, feces, feeding, quiz] 1. quiz on nutritional benefit of eating one fishes' feces over another's. [Text only]

coprophagy / : [coprophagy, feces, feeding, quiz] 1. quiz on nutritional benefit of eating one fishes' feces over another's. [Text only]

phytoplankton / : [food web] 1. sun's energy promotes growth of phytoplankton, that leads through various food webs to power the reef economy. [Drawing]

photosynthesis / : [nutrition, photosynthesis] 1. colours in corals come mainly from the symbiotic plant cells within their tissues that provide photosynthetic nutrients and energy. [Video]

photosynthesis / : [video courtesy] 1. video courtesy Andy Stockbridge, Belize. Stockbridge [Video]

coral reef / : [light, nutrition] 1. need for light for their photosynthesising symbionts partly explains why corals do better in shallow water. [Photo]

coral reef / : [nutrition, photosynthesis, primary productivity] 1. comments on how seaweed-rich are some reef areas. [Video]

photosynthesis / : [primary productivity] 1. explanation of how photosynthesis works. [Drawing]

coral / : [video courtesy] 1. video courtesy Andy Stockbridge, Belize. Stockbridge [Video]

coral / : [nutrition, photosynthesis, primary productivity] 1. overview of how common is photosynthesis in coral-reef organisms. [Video]

Aristotle's lantern / : [description, function, mechanism, nutrition] 1. description of operation of the lantern. [Photo]

Aristotle's lantern / : [adaptive morphology, Aristotles lantern, cartoon, nutrition, quiz] 1. how would Aristotle himself explain the relationship between relative lantern size, human population density, fishing pressure, and algal abundance?. [Drawing]

gorgonian / : [nutrition, photosynthesis, symbiont, zooxanthellae] 1. many species have photosynthesising symbionts known as zooxanthellae in their tissues. [Photo]

coral reef / : [nutrition, photosynthesis, symbiont] 1. most coral-reef organisms host photosynthesising symbionts for their nutritional benefit. [Photo]

phytoplankton / : [nutrition, photosynthesis, primary productivity] 1. poor visibility because of flocculent matter in the water. [Video]

phytoplankton diatoms / : [nutrition, photosynthesis, primary productivity] 1. diatoms are a common component of phytoplankton. [Photo]

red tide dinoflagellate / : [nutrition, phytoplankton, primary productivity] 1. bloom of dinoflagellates. [Photo]

phytoplankton diatoms / : [photo courtesy] 1. photograph courtesy Brian Leander, University of British Columbia. Leander [Photo]

green alga / : [nutrition, photosynthesis, primary productivity] 1. view of shallow-water green algae. [Video]

green alga / : [description, chlorophyll] 1. chlorophylls in green algae absorb mostly blue and red wavelengths, leaving the green wavelengths to be reflected. [Graph]

red alga / : [growth, photosynthesis, pigment] 1. photosynthetic pigments in red algae absorb mostly violet, blue, and green wavelengths, leaving red wavelengths to be reflected. [Graph]

seaweeds / : [growth, nutrition, photosynthesis, pigment, depth] 1. actual maximum depths of green, red, and brown seaweeds in the Caribbean Sea do not match predictions based on types of photosynthetic pigments they possess. Littler et al. 1989 [Graph]

seaweeds / : [depth] 1. quiz relating to why optimal depths of distribution of Caribbean seaweed types do not match predictions based on optimal use of light wavelengths for photosynthesis. [Text only]

damselfish / : [cleaner, client, quiz, symbiosis] 1. quiz on whether a damselfish should have its own personal cleaner. 2. advantages versus disadvantages. [Text only]

coral reef / : [mutualism, photosynthesis, zooxanthellae] 1. much of the reef's economy depends upon symbiotic zooxanthellae. [Photo]

parasitism / : [description, symbiosis] 1. definition of parasitism. [Text only]

nematocyst / : [nematocyst, sting, treatment] 1. advice on how to treat nematocyst stings. [Text only]

gorgonian / : [diversity] 1. Caribbean reefs are noted for their high diversity of gorgonians. Wilkinson 1992 [Photo]

coral reef / : [survival, map] 1. reefs in many parts of the world, including much of the Caribbean area, are in declining health. Wilkinson 1992 []

crinoid / : [diversity, survival, map] 1. Indo-Pacific reefs are characterised by high diversity of crinoids. Wilkinson 1992 []

coral reef / : [survival] 1. ultimate cause of decline of coral reefs is world-population growth. Buddemeier 2001 [Graph]

coral reef / : [description, survival] 1. description of biochemical and biological effects of rising carbon-dioxide levels in the atmosphere. [Graph]

red alga / : [disease] 1. several species cause disease in coral-reef organisms. [Photo]

phytoplankton / : [growth, nutrient] 1. nutrient enrichment through water run-off from the land leads to growth of phytoplankton. [Video]

pollution / : [cyanobacteria, growth, nutrient] 1. nutrient enrichment from sewage can lead to growth of algae and blue-green algae, and general eutrophication. [Photo]

coral reef / : [survival] 1. classification of world-reef status is already seriously out of date. Wilkinson 1992 [Graph]

coral reef / : [climate change, survival, carbon offset] 1. record of global sea-temperatures is not optimistic regarding survival of world's coral reefs. Buddemeier 2001 [Graph]

coral reef / : [climate change, survival] 1. Caribbean-wide decline in coral cover by 80% in only 3 decades. Gardner et al. 2003 [Photo, Graph]

coral reef / : [climate change, survival, pollution] 1. in Queensland, Australia habitat degradation leads to "altered state" of the reef, where hard corals are displaced by "weedy" soft corals. Knowlton 2001 [Photo]

coral reef / : [diversity, survival, functional redundancy] 1. Caribbean reefs have generally low levels of functional redundancy, with lessened chance of survival during stress. Bellwood et al. 2004 [Photo, Graph]

marine protected area / : [map, survival, conservation] 1. such protected areas are increasing in number throughout Caribbean, but enforcement of regulations is not keeping up. Cousteau 2002 []

marine protected area / : [conservation, map] 1. two such "no-take" areas in Glover's Reef, Belize. []

marine protected area / : [conservation, refuge] 1. generally, size of such No-Take Areas is too small to be effective. Bellwood et al. 2004 [Photo]

marine protected area / : [survival] 1. future survival of world's coral reefs may require much "catch-up" and reassessments of aims of such conservation programmes. McCauley et al. 2015 [Graph]

marine protected area / : [conservation, map, survival] 1. staff at the Roatan Marine Park, Belize is attempting to set strong guidelines for reef management. [Photo]

coral reef / : [conservation, survival, pharmaceutical] 1. increasing awareness of the pharmaceutical usefulness of extracts from sponges and skeletal parts of corals may ultimately contribute to survival of coral reefs. [Photo]

coral reef / : [conservation, growth, survival] 1. "farming" of corals is becoming more widespread. Rinkevich 2000 [Photo]

coral farming / : [conservation, growth, survival] 1. aspects of farming of corals. Becker & Mueller 2001 [Photo]

coral farming / : [conservation, growth, survival] 1. aspects of farming corals to rejuvenate denuded reefs. Epstein et al. 2001 [Photo]

coral reef / : [conservation, habitat] 1. restoration and/or creation of habitat is critical to wildlife conservation of every sort, not just coral reefs. 2. ship in Cuba sunk for SCUBA-divers. []

coral reef / : [conservation, habitat] 1. sunken ships provide useful habitat for fished and invertebrates. [Photo]

reef balls / : [conservation, habitat] 1. an excellent recent concept in reef conservation and management . 2. hollow concrete balls provide habitat for fishes and invertebrates, including corals. [Photo]

reef balls / : [photo courtesy] 1. photograph courtesy Barbados Trident Tours. Barbados Trident Tours [Photo]

reef balls / : [photo courtesy] 1. photograph courtesy Marriott Grand Cayman Hotel, Bahamas. Marriott Grand Cayman Hotel [Photo]

coral reef / : [quiz] 1. interesting quiz on what snorkelers and SCUBA-divers want most to see on their excursions. Williams et al. 2000 [Photo]

overfishing / : [overfishing, survival] 1. effects of overfishing in historical times. Jackson 2001 [Graph]

overfishing / : [overfishing] 1. archeological evidence suggests that overfishing affected catch size in historical times on several Caribbean islands. Wing & Wing 2001 [Graph]

overfishing / : [overfishing] 1. careful management required to meet the varied needs of fishing, recreation, and protection in marine parks. [Photo]

pollution / : [pollution] 1. reef pollution is evident even from historical times. [Video]

coral reef / : [feeding, peril] 1. SCUBA-diver feeds fished at a designated feeding station in Moorea, French Polynesia. [Photo]

coral reef / : [experiment, peril, recreation] 1. comments on recreational use of reefs by SCUBA-divers and the potential damage they may do. Talge 1992 [Photo]

coral reef / : [peril, recreation] 1. air bubbles that accumulate in tunnels are potentially deadly to sessile plants and invertebrates. 2. SCUBA-diver induced damage to coral reefs. [Photo]

coral reef / : [experiment, peril, recreation] 1. study shows that SCUBA-diving photographers are 5 times more likely to damage corals than non-photographer divers. 2. males with cameras are 5 times worse than females with cameras. Rouphael & Inglis 2001 [Photo]

coral reef / : [experiment, peril, recreation] 1. studies suggest that 6,000 SCUBA-dives per year may be the limit to a reef's carrying capacity. 2. some Red-Sea reefs are subject to 50,000 or more diver annually. Hawkins & Roberts 1997 [Graph]

recruitment / : [description, recruitment, sexual] 1. introduction to recruitment processes in sexually reproducing reef organisms. [Text only]

fish larva / : [quiz, recruitment, reproduction] 1. quiz on the adaptive value of a pelagic larval phase in life cycles of coral-reef fishes. [Text only]

larva / : [recruitment, reproduction] 1. "hot" buttons to access details on spawning, larval development, and dispersal of larvae in various coral-reef organisms. [Text only]

red alga / : [asexual, experiment, recruitment, reproduction] 1. experiment on fragmentation and recruitment of fragments in Panama. Kilar & McLachlan 1986 [Drawing]

sponge / : [asexual, predation, reproduction] 1. discussion of ecological consequences of predator-induced asexual reproduction in sponges. [Photo]

jellyfish / : [settlement, metamorphosis] 1. planula larva settles to the sea bottom and metamorphoses to a polyp. [Drawing]

jellyfish / : [behaviour, swimming] 1. swimming in an aquarium tank. [Video]

fish larva / : [behaviour, larva, map, settlement] 1. detailed studies of recruitment patterns around the coast of Barbados. Sponaugle & Cowan 1996 [Graph]

larval fish / : [larva, quiz, settlement] 1. quiz on which stage of moon cycle would favour settlement of larval fishes in Barbados. Sponaugle & Cowan 1996 [Text only]

coral / : [description, larva, spawn] 1. overview of spawning and larval settlement. [Photo]

sea urchin / : [fertilisation, larva, spawn] 1. outline of reproductive events leading to a pluteus larva. [Drawing]

brittle star / : [cartoon, dispersal, juvenile] 1. juveniles of different species discuss their various physical features that would promote flotation for dispersal. [Drawing]

hydroid / : [larva, predator] 1. in Panama hydroids are chief predators on invertebrate larvae. Coma et al. 1999 [Photo]

larva / : [defense, predation] 1. review of potential defenses of invertebrate larvae. 2. conclusion: most invertebrate larvae appear to be defenseless. Bullard et al. 1999 [Drawing]

diatom / : [food] 1. represent a nutritious food for damselfishes. [Photo]

diatom / : [photo courtesy] 1. photograph courtesy Max Taylor, University of British Columbia. Taylor [Photo]

damselfish / : [feeding] 1. in the Great Barrier Reef, Australia damselfishes may eat only 25% of the yield from their gardens; other herbivores & storms take the remainder. Russ 1987 [Drawing]

damselfish / : [feeding] 1. consideration of yield of a damselfish's garden in terms of benefit . Klumpp & Polunin 1989 [Drawing]

damselfish / : [competition, quiz, territory] 1. quiz on competitive relationship of 2 damselfish species in Panama, dusky Stegastes fuscus and S. planifrons. [Text only]

parrotfish / : [feeding, territory] 1. do parrotfishes scrape coral to mark a territory or just to feed?. [Photo]

parrotfish / : [aggression, competition, mate, territory] 1. aggression is between conspecifics over mates/territories. 2. parrotfishes are not so aggressive to other species. van Rooij et al. 1996 [Photo, Drawing]

parrotfish / : [behaviour, quiz, terminal-phase] 1. quiz on the daily "duties" of a terminal-phase male parrotfish. [Text only]

sea urchin / : [cartoon, competition] 1. a SCUBA-diver discusses with 2 species of competing sea urchins their aggressive behaiour. []

HYDRO-LAB / : [methodology] 1. description of one of the world's first undersea habitat used for in situ research by SCUBA-divers. [Photo]

reef peril / : [peril] 1. deep reefs survive better than shallow ones. Bak et al. 2005 [Graph]

marine protected area / : [conservation, marine protected area] 1. to be effective, MPAs need effective policing. Christie & White 2007 [Drawing]

shells / : [overfishing, collecting] 1. examples of commercial shell-harvesting and retail sales. [Photo]

sewage pollution / : [nutrition] 1. if properly managed sewage release into coral-reef areas may not always be harmful. Dollar 1994 [Photo]

marine reserve / : [marine protected area] 1. description of the (then) smallest marine reserve in the Caribbean area. Roberts & Hawkins 1997 [Photo, Graph]

hydrolab / : [underwater habitat] 1. description of use of underwater habitats for research. [Photo]

earthquake / : [earthquake] 1. description of earthquake damage to reefs in Belize/Honduras. Foster et al. 2010 [Photo]

marine protected area / : [map, marine protected area] 1. assessment of effectiveness of "sanctuary" status in the Florida Keys. Toth et al. 2014 []

barrel sponge / Xestospongia: [] 1. .

sergeant major / Abudefduf saxatilis: [chromatophore, function] 1. description of chromatophore function. [Drawing]

sergeant major / Abudefduf saxatilis: [camouflage, counter-shading] 1. photo showing counter-shaded body. [Photo]

sergeant major / Abudefduf saxatilis: [coloration, communication, function, social] 1. coloration functions in schooling or shoaling?. [Photo]

sergeant major / Abudefduf saxatilis: [morphology, predator, quiz] 1. part of a quiz dealing with facial features of predatory fishes. [Photo]

sergeant major / Abudefduf saxatilis: [diet, nutrition, predator] 1. diet comprises various types of planktonic and benthic organisms. [Photo]

sergeant major / Abudefduf saxatilis: [behaviour, nutrition] 1. swims around in the water column. [Video]

sergeant major / Abudefduf saxatilis: [cleaning, client, symbiosis] 1. being cleaned by a juvenile bluehead wrasse Thalassoma bifasciatum. [Photo]

sergeant major / Abudefduf saxatilis: [feeding, peril] 1. being fed by a diver in St. Lucia, along with other reef fishes. [Photo]

sergeant major / Abudefduf saxatilis: [larva, recruitment, settlement] 1. larval fishes tend to recruit to seagrass beds and mangroves. [Video]

sergeant major / Abudefduf saxatilis: [larva, recruitment] 1. in Panama larval fishes recruit to shallow areas of reef. Robertson 1988 [Photo]

sergeant major / Abudefduf saxatilis: [larva, recruitment] 1. larval stages recruit to shallow areas of the reef. DeLoach 1999 [Photo]

sergeant major / Abudefduf saxatilis: [juvenile, larva, life cycle] 1. emphasis on survival during transition from larval to juvenile stages in coral-reef fishes. Kaufman et al. 1992 [Photo]

sergeant major / Abudefduf saxatilis: [juvenile, larva, life cycle, survival] 1. emphasis on survival risks during transition from larva to juvenile stages in coral-reef fishes. Searcy & Sponaugle 2001 [Photo]

sergeant major / Abudefduf saxatilis: [aggression, behaviour, egg, male] 1. males become aggressive and dark in colour when defending egg nest. [Video]

sergeant major / Abudefduf saxatilis: [sexual] 1. details of nest-guarding behaviour of males. DeLoach 1999 [Photo]

crown of thorns / Acanthaster planci: [regeneration] 1. can these coral predators be eliminated by chopping them up?. 2. probably not because any remnant containing a significant portion of the central disc has a chance to fully regenerate. Messmer et al. 2013 [Photo]

crown of thorns / Acanthaster planci: [removal] 1. development of an autonomous submersible robot with search and killing capabilities to remove this predator from the Great Barrier Reef. Queensland University of Technology 2017 [Photo]

roughhead blenny / Acanthemblemaria aspera: [camouflage, colour] 1. good camouflage involves a combination of colour, behaviour, pattern, and shape. [Video]

roughhead blenny / Acanthemblemaria aspera: [video courtesy] 1. video courtesy Andy Stockbridge, Belize. Stockbridge [Video]

roughhead blenny / Acanthemblemaria aspera: [behaviour, diet, habitat, nutrition] 1. comparison of diet with spinyhead blennies Acanthemblemaria spinosa who live at the high part of the reef. Clarke 1999 [Photo, Drawing]

roughhead blenny / Acanthemblemaria aspera: [behaviour, feeding, nutrition] 1. shows it catching a copepod from the plankton. [Video]

roughhead blenny / Acanthemblemaria aspera: [video courtesy] 1. video courtesy Andy Stockbridge, Belize. Stockbridge [Video]

roughhead blenny / Acanthemblemaria aspera: [behaviour, feeding, nutrition, video courtesy] 1. photo series showing an individual catching a planktonic copepod by extending its body from its burrow opening. [Photo]

blenny / Acanthemblemaria sp.: [behaviour, burrow, defense] 1. retreats to burrow, often old worm-holes in coral, when threatened. [Photo]

spinyhead blenny / Acanthemblemaria spinosa: [competition, habitat, preemptive, space] 1. blennies preempt holes in corals from use by other organisms. [Video]

spinyhead blenny / Acanthemblemaria spinosa: [competition, habitat, preemptive, space, intraspecific] 1. blennies compete with conspecifics for dwelling-holes in coral. Buchheim & Hixon 1992 [Photo]

spinyhead blenny / Acanthemblemaria spinosa: [competition, habitat, preemptive, space, intraspecific] 1. blennies compete with conspecifics for dwelling-holes in coral. Buchheim & Hixon 1992 [Photo]

spinyhead blenny / Acanthemblemaria spinosa: [habitat, experiment] 1. experiment to test homing abilities of spinyhead blennies that have been removed from their dwelling holes in coral. Buchheim & Hixon 1992 [Photo]

spinyhead blenny / Acanthemblemaria spinosa: [behaviour, diet, habitat, nutrition] 1. comparison of diet with roughhead blennies Acanthemblemaria aspera who live at the low part of the reef. Clarke 1999 [Photo, Drawing]

spinyhead blenny / Acanthemblemaria spinosa: [competition, food, preemptive] 1. an organism eats an item of food, which preempts other organisms from eating that same food item. [Video]

spinyhead blenny / Acanthemblemaria spinosa: [video courtesy] 1. video courtesy Andy Stockbridge, Belize. Stockbridge [Video]

chiton / Acanthophora granulata: [herbivore, nutrition] 1. live in the back-reef area and feed on algae and diatoms. [Photo, Drawing]

red alga / Acanthophora spicifera: [asexual, recruitment, reproduction] 1. possible reproduction & recruitment by asexual re-growth of fragments. [Photo]

acanthophora / Acanthophora spp.: [edibility, structure] 1. ranked 3rd "most herbivore-edible" of 6 Caribbean algal species . 2. fleshy, easily fragmentable. [Photo]

chiton / Acanthopleura granulata: [diversity] 1. example of diversity of Caribbean molluscs. [Video]

chiton / Acanthopleura granulata: [diversity] 1. example of diversity of Caribbean molluscs. Ferreira 1985 [Photo]

honeycomb cowfish / Acanthostracion polygonius: [predation] 1. in the Florida Keys may cause small, pale, ring-shaped marks on elkhorn corals Acropora palmata by their sucking action. Williams & Bright 2013 [Photo]

ocean surgeonfish / Acanthurus bahianus: [coloration, function, toxicity, warning] 1. even though caudal spines are not coloured, blue piping on fins may act to warn against predation . [Photo]

ocean surgeonfish / Acanthurus bahianus: [sound] 1. example of sounds emitted from this species. [Photo]

ocean surgeonfish / Acanthurus bahianus: [defense, spine] 1. scalpel-like caudal spines protect against predators biting from the back. [Photo]

ocean surgeonfish / Acanthurus bahianus: [ambush predator, predation] 1. photo series showing a juvenile being held and sucked into the sand by a predator. [Photo]

ocean surgeonfish / Acanthurus bahianus: [diet, function, morphology, mouth] 1. comparison of functional morphology of mouths of different fish species in relation to diet. [Photo, Drawing]

surgeonfish / Acanthurus bahianus: [larva, metamorphosis, settlement] 1. comments on settlement choices of larval fishes. [Video]

ocean surgeonfish / Acanthurus bahianus: [behaviour, larva, settlement] 1. larval fishes have specific preferences as to where to settle. Risk 1997 [Photo]

ocean surgeonfish / Acanthurus bahianus: [aggression, settlement, survival] 1. in St. Croix aggression by damselfishes interferes with their settlement. Risk 1998 [Photo]

doctorfish / Acanthurus chirurgus: [ciguatera, disease] 1. one of several species severely affected by ciguatera poisoning in the Florida Keys in the 1990s. Landsberg 1995 [Photo]

doctorfish / Acanthurus chirurgus: [cleaning, client, symbiosis] 1. being cleaned of parasitic isopods and copepods. Losey 1974 [Photo]

blue tang / Acanthurus coeruleus: [behaviour, diet, herbivore] 1. video showing a group of blue-tang surgeonfishes browsing on algae. [Video]

blue tang / Acanthurus coeruleus: [aggression, coloration, mimicry] 1. hypothetical example of what is meant by aggressive mimicry. [Photo, Drawing]

blue tang / Acanthurus coeruleus: [aggression, coloration, mimicry] 1. cartoon showing two wrasses making fun of a trumpetfish Aulostomus maculatus mimicking the blue-head coloration of a pair of blue tangs Acanthurus coeruleus. [Photo, Drawing]

blue tang / Acanthurus coeruleus: [adult, coloration, function, juvenile] 1. sharp differentiation of colour patterns between adult and juvenile may imply different functions in the two life stages. Thresher 1977 [Photo]

blue tang / Acanthurus coeruleus: [feeding] 1. diver follows shoal of blue tangs as they feed. [Video]

blue tang / Acanthurus coeruleus: [coloration, function, toxicity, warning] 1. good example of warning coloration. 2. caudal spines are highlighted with yellow, against black and blue body colours. [Photo]

blue tang / Acanthurus coeruleus: [defense, school] 1. the more well-matched are the school-members, the harder is the job of a predator to find a suitable one to attack. [Drawing]

blue tang / Acanthurus coeruleus: [defense, shoal] 1. shows an initial-phase queen parrotfish Scarus vetula within the shoal, an immediate visual standout to a portential predator. [Photo]

blue tang / Acanthurus coeruleus: [defense, spine] 1. scalpel-like caudal spines protect against predators biting from the back. [Photo]

blue tang / Acanthurus coeruleus: [morphology, predator] 1. part of a quiz dealing with topic of common features of a predatory fish. Karplus & Algam 1981 [Photo]

blue tang / Acanthurus coeruleus: [feeding] 1. view of it seemingly eating a gorgonian. [Video]

blue tang / Acanthurus coeruleus: [diet, herbivore, nutrition] 1. eat algae. [Photo]

blue tang / Acanthurus coeruleus: [diet, nutrition] 1. browses on bacteria/algae scum. [Video]

blue tang / Acanthurus coeruleus: [cleaning, client, symbiosis] 1. being cleaned by some cleaner fishes. [Video]

blue tang / Acanthurus coeruleus: [behaviour, cleaning, client, station] 1. would-be client fishes stand a better chance of being cleaned if they pose at a cleaning station. Cote et al. 1998 [Photo, Drawing]

blue tang / Acanthurus coeruleus: [herbivory, territory] 1. a shoal of blue tangs. [Video]

blue tang / Acanthurus coeruleus: [feeding, territory] 1. studies on effect of group size of tangs on their food intake within a damselfish's territory. Foster 1985 [Photo]

blue tang / Acanthurus coeruleus: [behaviour, swimming] 1. shoal of tangs is joined by a trumpetfish, perhaps looking for a safe transit across the reef. [Video]

blue tang / Acanthurus coeruleus: [cleaning] 1. study on efficacy of cleaning by 3 species of purported crustacean cleaners: Periclimenes pedersoni, P. yucatanicus, and Stenopus hispidus. 2. only the first species P. pedersoni is observed in the study to act as a cleaner. McCammon et al. 2010 [Text only]

blue tang / Acanthurus coruleus: [ciguatera, disease, toxicity, bleaching] 1. one of several herbivorous reef fishes in which outbreaks of ciguatera poisoning correlate well with extent of coral bleaching . [Photo]

surgeonfish / Acanthurus sp.: [defense, shoal] 1. this contrastingly coloured surgeonfish Acanthurus sp. within a shoal of blue tangs Acanthurus coeruleus would be a visual standout to a passing predator. [Photo]

surgeonfish / Acanthurus sp.: [behaviour, experiment] 1. experiment shows that fish-eating predators on the reef stay relatively close to the reef for their own protection. Sweatman & Robertson 1994 [Photo, Graph]

pipefish / Acentronura  dendritica: [ambush predator, behaviour, camouflage] 1. frilly morphology and waving-about posture provide good camouflage against zooplankters and larval fishes. [Photo]

green alga / Acetabularia crenulata: [growth, nutrition, photosynthesis] 1. because of their reliance on red wavelengths for photosynthesis, these green algae grow best in shallow water. [Photo]

ocellate swimming crab / Achelous sebae: [defense, function, mimicry] 1. possible function of eyespots in defense. [Photo]

staghorn coral / Acropora aspera: [bleaching, temperature] 1. observations on bleaching from exposure to cold temperature. Hoegh-Goldberg & Fine 2004 [Photo]

staghorn coral / Acropora cervicornis: [diversity] 1. one of a selection of Caribbean stony corals. [Photo]

staghorn coral / Acropora cervicornis: [bleaching] 1. Caribbean-wide bleaching event 1987-1988. Williams & Bunkley-Williams 1988 [Photo]

elkhorn coral / Acropora cervicornis: [conservation, survival] 1. presence of pristine growths in Cordelia Banks, Belize holds promise for future survival of corals in this area of the Caribbean. [Photo]

staghorn coral / Acropora cervicornis: [photo courtesy] 1. photograph courtesy Jon Slayer, Roatan Marine Park, Belize. Slayer [Photo]

staghorn coral / Acropora cervicornis: [asexual, experiment, recruitment, reproduction] 1. coral actually fragments through self-weakening, bits are transported by waves and currents, regrow. Bothwell 1981 [Drawing]

staghorn coral / Acropora cervicornis: [disease] 1. examples of White Band Disease. Precht et al. 2002 [Photo]

staghorn coral / Acropora intermedia: [dispersal, temperature, global warming] 1. evidence of poleward range extensions associated with global warming. Baird et al. 2012 [Photo]

elkhorn coral / Acropora palmata: [morphology] 1. comment on general flatness of corals in relation to efficacy of prey capture. [Video]

elkhorn coral / Acropora palmata: [video courtesy] 1. video courtesy Andy Stockbridge, Belize. []

elkhorn coral / Acropora palmata: [survival] 1. is diminishing in numbers throughout the Caribbean region. [Photo]

elkhorn coral / Acropora palmata: [peril, recreation] 1. piece broken off by SCUBA-diver. [Photo]

elkhorn coral / Acropora palmata: [experiment, peril, recreation] 1. example of diver-caused breakage of corals. A study in Florida shows that SCUBA-divers routinely touch or fin live coral up to 10 times per dive, even when advised not to do so. Talge 1992 [Photo]

elkhorn coral / Acropora palmata: [asexual, recruitment, reproduction] 1. reproduction from bits broken off the main colony. [Video]

elkhorn coral / Acropora palmata: [asexual, recruitment, reproduction] 1. broken bits may survive and regrow. [Photo]

elkhorn coral / Acropora palmata: [asexual, experiment, recruitment, regeneration, reproduction] 1. experimental fragmentation leads to regeneration and new recruitment. Bak & Criens 1981 [Photo]

elkhorn coral / Acropora palmata: [asexual, quiz, recruitment] 1. quiz on pros and cons of asexual fragmentation and regrowth. Bak & Criens 1981 []

elkhorn coral / Acropora palmata: [predation] 1. study in the Florida Keys on predation by snails Coralliophila abbreviata. Miller 2001 [Photo, Graph]

elkhorn coral / Acropora palmata: [disease] 1. white-pox disease afflicting colonies in St. John, US Virgin Islands. Rogers et al. 2005 [Photo]

elkhorn coral / Acropora palmata: [growth, regeneration] 1. new regrown coral may be more susceptible to storm damage. Bonito et al. 2006 [Photo]

elkhorn coral / Acropora palmata: [disease, stress, survival] 1. 7yr study to assess factors important in leading to massive decline in population numbers in the Florida Keys. 2. fragmentation (storms), disease, predatory snails are most important. Williams & Miller 2012 [Photo]

elkhorn coral / Acropora palmata: [recruitment, survival] 1. study on settlement of larvae and survival of spat to 2mo in age. Miller 2014 [Photo]

elkhorn coral / Acropora palmata: [predation] 1. colonies in the Florida Keys sometimes bear small, pale, ring-shaped marks caused by sucking action of honeycomb cowfishes Acanthostracion polygonius. Williams & Bright 2013 [Photo]

elkhorn coral / Acropora palmata: [bleaching, disease] 1. examples of white pox and White Band diseases. Precht et al. 2002 [Photo]

elkhorn coral / Acropora palmata: [conservation, recruitment] 1. observations of recolonisation in island areas of Venezuela. Zubiallaga et al. 2005 [Photo]

elkhorn coral / Acropora palmata: [culture, farming] 1. fertilised eggs from Puerto Rico disseminated by researchers to several commercial aquariums worldwide for culture and "farming". Petersen et al. 2008 [Photo]

staghorn coral / Acropora spp.: [diversity, functional redundancy, survival] 1. comparatively low diversity of staghorn-coral species in the Caribbean region; so there is low functional redundancy. If this species dies off, which seems imminent, then there are no similar species to replace it. [Photo]

staghorn coral / Acropora spp.: [hermaphrodite, pattern, reproduction] 1. description of reproductive pattern. [Photo]

elkhorn coral / Acropora  palmata: [stocks, health] 1. making a comeback after being decimated by white-pox disease in Carrie Bow Cay, Belize. Macintyre & Toscano 2007 [Photo]

corallimorpharian / Actinotryx sp.: [behaviour, cleaner, host] 1. in some areas may act as host cnidarian for cleaner shrimps Periclimenes . Ritson-Williams & Paul 2007 [Photo]

spotted eagle ray / Aetobatus narinari: [diversity] 1. example of diversity of Caribbean sharks, rays, and marine mammals. [Video]

spotted eagle ray / Aetobatus narinari: [danger, sting] 1. morphology of sting in tail. [Photo]

spotted eagle ray / Aetobatus narinari: [behaviour, swimming] 1. view of it swimming. [Video]

spotted eagle ray / Aetobatus narinari: [video courtesy] 1. video courtesy Andy Stockbridge, Belize. Stockbridge [Video]

spotted eagle ray / Aetobatus narinari: [symbiosis] 1. has a sharsucker Echeneis naucrates attached to and swimming with it . [Video]

spotted eagle ray / Aetobatus narinari: [video courtesy] 1. video courtesy Andy Stockbridge, Belize. Stockbridge [Video]

spotted eagle ray / Aetobatus narinari: [video courtesy] 1. video courtesy Andy Stockbridge, Belize. Stockbridge [Video]

lettuce coral / Agaricia agaricites: [morphology, nutrition] 1. study on growth form in relation to efficacy of prey capture and depth. Helmuth 1991 [Photo]

lettuce coral / Agaricia agaricites: [morphology, nutrition, plasticity] 1. discussion of morphological plasticity of lettuce corals. Helmuth 1991 [Photo]

lettuce coral / Agaricia agaricites: [bleaching] 1. Caribbean-wide bleaching event 1987-1988. Williams & Bunkley-Williams 1988 [Photo]

lettuce coral / Agaricia agaricites: [competition, cyanobacteria, overgrowth] 1. nutrient enrichment may lead to overgrowth by cyanobacteria. [Photo]

lettuce coral / Agaricia agaricites: [pattern, reproduction] 1. planula larva lives freely for only a few minutes. [Photo]

lettuce coral / Agaricia agaricites: [competition, overgrowth] 1. overgrown by mat tunicates Trididemnum solidum to a greater degree at depth. Sommers et al. 2010 [Photo]

lettuce coral / Agaricia grahamae: [depth, nutrition, zooxanthellae] 1. individuals at 119m depth set a depth record for zooxanthellate corals in the Caribbean. Reed 1985 [Photo]

lettuce coral / Agaricia lamarcki: [photosynthesis, zooxanthellae] 1. these corals and many others along with macroalgae are common on Pulley Reef, Florida . 2. "the deepest
known photosynthetic coral reef on the North American continental shelf". Culter et al. 2006 [Photo]

lettuce coral / Agaricia sp.: [chemical, competition, polyp] 1. sequence showing back-and-forth battle of adjacent polyps of competing corals. Chornesky 1989 [Photo, Drawing]

plate coral / Agaricia sp.: [bleaching, photosynthesis, pigment] 1. bleaching is a loss of photosynthetic pigments, often by expulsion of zooxanthellae symbionts by the coral. [Photo]

plate coral / Agaricia spp.: [competition, preemptive, light] 1. corals compete for light for their photosynthetic symbionts. [Photo]

plate coral / Agaricia spp.: [competition, chemical] 1. shows two corals competing for space, with chemically mediated damage to both. [Video]

lettuce coral / Agaricia tenuifolia: [diversity] 1. one of a selection of Caribbean stony corals. [Photo]

lettuce coral / Agaricia tenuifolia: [storms] 1. accounts of hurricane damage to reefs at Cozumel, Mexico in 2005. Alvarez-Filip & Gil 2006 [Photo]

orange elephant ear sponge / Agelas clathrodes: [life cycle, reproduction] 1. details of breeding season, gamete release, and so on. Hoppe 1988 [Photo]

brown tube sponge / Ageles conifera: [diversity] 1. example of diversity of Caribbean sponges. [Photo]

brown tube sponge / Ageles conifera: [defense, spicule] 1. spicules of sponges may actually be for structural support more than for defense. Chanas et al. 1996 [Photo]

brown tube sponge / Ageles conifera: [predation] 1. bite-marks evident, but healed...angelfishes and/or hawksbill turtles?. [Video]

brown tube sponge / Ageles conifera: [cyanobacteria, photosynthesis, symbiont] 1. most tropical sponges have bacterial symbionts that photosynthsise. [Photo]

brown tube sponge / Ageles conifera: [bacteria, photosynthesis, symbiosis] 1. most sponges have photosynthesising bacteria in their cells. [Photo]

brown tube sponge / Ageles conifera: [bite, parasitism, predation] 1. when a French angelfish takes non-lethal bites from it, is the angelfish behaving as a predator or parasite?. [Photo]

brown tube sponge / Ageles conifera: [peril, recreation] 1. piece broken off by SCUBA-diver. [Photo]

brown tube sponge / Ageles conifera: [asexual, recruitment, reproduction] 1. fish and turtle bitings may produce functional clonal individuals. [Photo]

brown tube sponge / Ageles conifera: [spawn] 1. nice view of several males and females spawning. [Video]

brown tube sponge / Ageles conifera: [video courtesy] 1. video courtesy James Constable, Florida. Constable [Video]

brown tube sponge / Ageles conifera: [egg, larva, recruitment, spawn] 1. fertilisation of eggs occurs outside of the female sponge. [Photo]

brown tube sponge / Ageles conifera: [photo courtesy] 1. photographs courtesy Anne Dupont, Florida. Dupont [Photo]

brown tube sponge / Ageles conifera: [chemical, communication] 1. tests on sponge pairs Ircinia felix with brown tube-sponge Ageles conifera to determine if sponges growing in close association pass chemicals to the other. 2. they don't. Schaft & Mebs 2002 [Photo]

sea anemone / Aiptasia sp.: [host, nutrition, photosynthesis, symbiont, zooxanthellae] 1. hosts communicate chemically with their symbionts to provide more nutritive photosynthates. Davy & Cook 2001 [Photo]

sea anemone / Aiptasia sp.: [host, nutrition, photosynthesis, symbiont, zooxanthellae] 1. hosts communicate chemically with their symbionts to provide more nutritive photosynthates. Cook & Davy 2001 [Photo]

snapping shrimp / Alpheus armatus: [mutualism, symbiont] 1. lives with various sea anemones, including hidden anemones Lebrunia coralligens. Smith 1977 [Photo]

snapping shrimp / Alpheus sp.: [behaviour, burrow, defense, mutualism] 1. shares protective burrows with orangespotted gobies Nes longus. [Photo]

snapping shrimp / Alpheus sp.: [burrow, mutualism, symbiont] 1. shrimp digs burrow, goby gets food and watches for predators. Karplus et al. 1972 [Photo]

scrawled filefish / Aluterus scriptus: [defense, spine] 1. erectable spine may lock into crevices and/or make it difficult or impossible for a predator to swallow its prey. [Photo]

scrawled filefish / Aluterus scriptus: [defense, escape] 1. video contrasts escape behaviour in slow- and fast-moving fishes when attacked. [Video]

scrawled filefish / Aluterus scriptus: [video courtesy] 1. video courtesy Andy Stockbridge, Belize. Stockbridge [Video]

clownfish / Amphiprion chrysopterus: [coloration, function] 1. bright colours of clownfish may function as warning to predators not to come to close, lest they be stung. [Photo]

clownfish / Amphiprion crysopterus: [growth, mutualism, reproduction, survival] 1. benefits in increased growth, reproduction, and survival accrue to host anemones by a clownfish's presence. Holbrook & Schmitt 2005 [Photo]

dusky anemonefish / Amphiprion melanopus: [behaviour, defense, refuge, symbiont] 1. this Indo-Pacific species maintains a symbiotic relationship with certain anemone species. [Photo]

coralline alga / Amphiroa sp.: [diversity, seaweed] 1. example of bleaching from light exposure. [Photo]

split crown feather duster worm / Anamobaea orstedii: [diversity] 1. example of diversity of Caribbean worms. [Video]

feather duster worm / Anamobaea orstedii: [competition, space] 1. worms compete for space with boulder coral Montastrea annularis. [Photo]

split crown feather duster worm / Anamobaea orstedii: [diet, nutrition] 1. primarily eat zooplankton. [Photo]

cymothoid isopod / Anilocra sp.: [parasitism, symbiont] 1. attaches parasitically under the eyes of various coral-reef fishes. DeLoach 1999 [Photo]

sushi worm / Anisakis sp.: [danger, parasitism] 1. a painful experience originating from eating raw fish. 2. sushi worms when consumed live tend to want to burrow out of the digestive tract, creating severe abdominal pain. [Photo]

sushi worm / Anisakis sp.: [treatment] 1. description of treatment recommended for sushi worms. [Photo]

black margate / Anisotremus surinamensis: [sound] 1. 3 types of sounds produced. Cummings et al. 1966 [Photo]

porkfish / Anisotremus virginicus: [camouflage, coloration] 1. yellow and black combinations may be camouflaging from a distance. [Photo]

porkfish / Anisotremus virginicus: [coloration, eyebar] 1. idea that eye-bars on predatory fishes may act both to confuse their own predators and to disguise them from their prey. [Photo]

porkfish / Anisotremus virginicus: [nutrition, photosynthesis, primary productivity] 1. fishes in a cave. [Video]

porkfish / Anisotremus virginicus: [competition, space] 1. invades garden space of a damselfish and gets nipped. [Video]

porkfish / Anisotremus virginicus: [video courtesy] 1. video courtesy Andy Stockbridge, Belize. Stockbridge [Video]

longlure frogfish / Antennarius multiocellatus: [coloration, function, mimicry, morphology] 1. photograph of a frogfish's lure. [Photo]

longlure frogfish / Antennarius multiocellatus: [photo courtesy] 1. photograph courtesy Anne Dupont, Florida. Dupont [Photo]

longlure frogfish / Antennarius multiocellatus: [coloration, mimicry, lure] 1. fishing lure on its head. [Photo, Video]

longlure frogfish / Antennarius multiocellatus: [photo courtesy, lure] 1. photograph courtesy Anne Dupont, Florida. [Photo]

longlure frogfish / Antennarius multiocellatus: [ambush predator, lure, nutrition] 1. description of operation of lure. [Photo]

longlure frogfish / Antennarius multiocellatus: [photo courtesy] 1. photograph courtesy Anne Dupont, Florida. Dupont [Photo]

longlure frogfish / Antennarius multiocellatus: [ambush predator, behaviour, nutrition, photo courtesy] 1. animation of gulping action when consuming prey. [Drawing]

fuzzy chiton / Anthopleura  granulata: [defense, shell, structure] 1. has 8 overlapping shell plates embedded in leathery tunic for protection. [Photo]

antipatharia / Antipathes sp.: [nutrition] 1. shows ciliary tracts in operation. [Photo]

sea hare / Aplysia brasiliana: [defense, swimming] 1. sea hares sometimes become stranded on the shore after swimming bouts. [Photo]

sea hare / Aplysia brasiliana: [swimming] 1. good video showing swimming mechanics. [Video]

sea hare / Aplysia brasiliana: [description, quiz, swimming] 1. description of daily life of this species, following by a quiz on the possible function of its swimming. [Drawing]

sea hare / Aplysia brasiliana: [photo courtesy] 1. photograph courtesy Anne Dupont, Florida. Dupont [Photo]

sea hare / Aplysia dactylomela: [diversity] 1. example of diversity of Caribbean molluscs. [Video]

sea hare / Aplysia dactylomela: [coloration, defense, mimicry, Batesian] 1. questionable idea that the colour pattern of toxic sea hares Aplysia dactylomela may be mimicked by juvenile bridled burrfishes Chilomycterus antennatus. [Photo]

sea hare / Aplysia dactylomela: [Batesian, coloration, defense, mimicry] 1. typical coloration of sea hares in a seagrass meadow in Florida. [Photo]

sea hare / Aplysia dactylomela: [photo courtesy] 1. photograph courtesy Anne Dupont, Florida. Dupont [Photo]

sea hare / Aplysia dactylomela: [Batesian, coloration, defense, mimicry, photo courtesy] 1. differently coloured sea hares in seaweed habitat. Heck & Weinstein 1978 [Photo]

sea hare / Aplysia dactylomela: [behaviour, defense, nocturnal] 1. generally active at nighttime. [Photo]

sea hare / Aplysia dactylomela: [chemical, defense, ink, toxic] 1. release ink containing irritating or toxic chemicals. [Photo, Drawing]

sea hare / Aplysia dactylomela: [photo courtesy] 1. photograph courtesy Anne Dupont, Florida. [Photo]

sea hare / Aplysia dactylomela: [behaviour, defense, ink] 1. tests of ink on behaviour of several carnivorous reef organisms show measurable changes in their behaviour. Carefoot & Pennings 1999 [Photo]

sea hare / Aplysia dactylomela: [behaviour, life cycle] 1. details of copulatory behaviour . [Photo]

sea hare / Aplysia dactylomela: [photo courtesy] 1. photograph courtesy Anne Dupont, Florida. Dupont [Photo]

sea hare / Aplysia dactylomela: [colour, feeding, spawn, egg] 1. egg string or spawn is coloured from pigments extracted from seaweeds being eaten. [Photo]

sea hare / Aplysia dactylomela: [behaviour, cartoon] 1. snails discuss life as they crawl along in a coplulatory chain. [Drawing]

sea hare / Aplysia dactylomela: [quiz] 1. quiz on a cartoon series dealing with sea hares and their spawn. [Text only]

sea hare / Aplysia dactylomela: [diversity] 1. example of diversity of Caribbean molluscs. [Photo]

sea hare / Aplysia pulmonica: [swimming] 1. swimming in an aquarium tank. 2. unique video footage, as this species has never been filmed since its one-time arrival in Oahu in the early 1980s. [Video]

sea hare / Aplysia pulmonica: [video courtesy] 1. video courtesy Dan Dunlop, Hawai'i. Dunlop [Video]

sea hare / Aplysia spp.: [ink, smokescreen] 1. purple ink released when a sea hare is molested may have camouflaging effects or even toxicity. [Photo]

sea hare / Aplysia  dactylomela: [feeding, herbivore, host, nutrition] 1. shallow-water herbivore. [Photo]

sea hare / Aplysia  dactylomela: [feeding, herbivore, host, jaw, nutrition, radula] 1. view of jaws and radula when it is fed a piece of seaweed. [Photo]

sea hare / Aplysia  dactylomela: [herbivory, nutrition, sensory] 1. the head bears several sensory structures, some used to locate and identify edible food algae. [Photo]

rope sponge / Aplysina cauliformis: [coloration, pigment] 1. pigments eclosed in special cells called chromatocytes. [Photo]

rope sponge / Aplysina cauliformis: [photo courtesy] 1. photograph courtesy Anne Dupont, Florida. Dupont [Photo]

rope sponge / Aplysina cauliformis: [chemical, competition] 1. video shows mutual chemical dissolution of sponge and protagonist coral. [Video]

rope sponge / Aplysina cauliformis: [growth, mutualism] 1. often grow intertwined...mutualistic benefits?. [Photo]

yellow tube sponge / Aplysina fistularis: [diversity] 1. example of diversity of Caribbean sponges. [Video]

yellow tube sponge / Aplysina fistularis: [predation] 1. favoured prey in some areas for gray cowries Luria cinerea. Pawlik & Deignan 2015 [Photo]

rope sponge / Aplysina fulva: [diversity] 1. example of diversity of Caribbean sponges. [Photo]

purple tube sponge / Aplysina sp.: [coloration, pigment] 1. pigments eclosed in special cells called chromatocytes. [Photo]

rope sponge / Aplysina sp.: [chemical, competition] 1. competition for space with a tube sponge Pseudoceratina crassa. [Photo]

rope sponge / Aplysina sp.: [growth] 1. some examples of self-self tissue recognition. [Video]

rope sponge / Aplysina sp.: [asexual, experiment, recruitment, reproduction] 1. a demonstration of asexual recruitment in the field. Wulff 1985 [Photo]

rope sponge / Aplysina sp.: [photo courtesy] 1. photograph courtesy Anne Dupont, Florida. Dupont [Photo]

bigtooth cardinalfish / Apogon affinis: [defense, refuge] 1. here seeking refuge in the spine canopy of a black sea-urchin Diadema antillarum. [Photo]

flamefish / Apogon maculatus: [behaviour, defense, hide] 1. waits in crevice with other like fishes until nightfall. [Video]

flamefish / Apogon maculatus: [video courtesy] 1. video courtesy Andy Stockbridge, Belize. Stockbridge [Video]

flamefish / Apogon maculatus: [video courtesy] 1. video courtesy Andy Stockbridge, Belize. Stockbridge [Video]

flamefish / Apogon maculatus: [behaviour, defense, refuge] 1. may hide in the spines of black sea-urchins Diadema antillarum. [Photo]

scaleworm / Arctonoe sp.: [commensal, symbiosis] 1. commonly found on sea cucumbers and other echinoderms. [Photo]

southern lugworm / Arenicola cristata: [detritus, feces] 1. feces add to the detrital "load" of the sand. [Video]

southern lugworm / Arenicola cristata: [bioturbation, feces, nutrition] 1. feces contribute to bio-enrichment of the soil. [Photo]

southern lugworm / Arenicola cristata: [bioturbation, feces, nutrition] 1. feces contribute to bio-enrichment of the soil. [Drawing]

lugworm / Arenicola sp.: [diversity] 1. example of diversity of Caribbean worms. [Video]

red shrimp / Aristeus antennatus: [camouflage, coloration, function] 1. red-colored shrimps would appear black at depth owing to loss of red wavelengths in light at depth. [Drawing]

marsh crab / Armases cinereum: [autotomy, defense] 1. many species of crabs and other crustaceans will drop a limb in defense of an attack. 2. the severed limb may continue to bite for a while. [Photo]

Atlantic seastar / Asterias sp.: [regeneration] 1. a not-so brilliant idea that one could remove these predators from oyster beds by dredging them up and chopping them to pieces. 2. any portion containing a portion of the central disc has a chance to fullly regenerate. Messmer et al. 2013 [Photo]

basket star / Astrophyton muricatum: [behaviour, defense, nocturnal] 1. contract during daytime and expand at night. [Photo]

basket star / Astrophyton muricatum: [behaviour, defense, nocturnal, predation] 1. folds up within gorgonians during the day, and expands to feed during the night. [Photo]

basket star / Astrophyton muricatum: [reproduction, spawn] 1. spawn broadcast fashion at night. McMurray et al. 2012 [Photo]

basket star / Astrophyton muricatum: [reproduction, spawn] 1. spawn broadcast fashion at night. McMurray et al. 2012 [Photo]

trumpetfish / Aulostomus maculatus: [] 1. video of it swimming across the reef in company with a young tiger grouper. [Video]

trumpetfish / Aulostomus maculatus: [camouflage, coloration, defense] 1. video of trumpetfish joining a group of blue tangs. [Video]

trumpetfish / Aulostomus maculatus: [camouflage, coloration] 1. photo series showing that for our eyes, at least, yellow coloration is easy to distinguish in shallow reef areas. [Photo]

trumpetfish / Aulostomus maculatus: [aggression, coloration, mimicry] 1. photograph showing a trumpetfish accompanying a hogfish Lachnolaimus maximus across the reef. 2. possible example of aggressive mimicry. [Photo]

trumpetfish / Aulostomus maculatus: [aggression, coloration, mimicry] 1. cartoon showing two wrasses making fun of a trumpetfish Aulostomus maculatus mimicking the blue-head coloration of a pair of blue tangs Acanthurus coeruleus. [Photo, Drawing]

trumpetfish / Aulostomus maculatus: [behaviour, defense, swimming] 1. swims across the reef with a hogfish and bar jack. [Photo]

trumpetfish / Aulostomus maculatus: [ambush predator, camouflage, defense] 1. camouflaging does double duty: against their own predators and against their own prey. 2. here camouflaged against 2 sponges. [Photo]

trumpetfish / Aulostomus maculatus: [defense] 1. commonly aligns itself to vertical objects, presumably to hide from predators and its own prey fishes. [Video]

trumpetfish / Aulostomus maculatus: [video courtesy] 1. video courtesy Andy Stockbridge, Belize. Stockbridge [Video]

trumpetfish / Aulostomus maculatus: [ambush predator, behaviour, nutrition] 1. video showing vertical attack posture. [Video]

trumpetfish / Aulostomus maculatus: [ambush predator, behaviour, morphology, nutrition] 1. diagrams showing operation of gulp mechanism. Wolff 1991 [Drawing]

trumpetfish / Aulostomus maculatus: [ambush predator, behaviour, morphology, nutrition] 1. photograph of circular mouth opening during gulping attack. [Photo]

trumpetfish / Aulostomus maculatus: [behaviour, camouflage] 1. trumpetfish crosses reef within a protective school of blue tangs. [Video]

moon jellyfish / Aurelia aurita: [diversity] 1. an example of an hydrozoan relative of Caribbean stony corals. [Photo]

moon jellyfish / Aurelia aurita: [camouflage, defense, transparency] 1. transparency is a camouflaging tactic in planktonic jellyfish. [Photo]

moon jellyfish / Aurelia aurita: [cartoon] 1. cartoon of two jellyfishes discussing advantages and disadvantages of transparency. [Drawing]

moon jellyfish / Aurelia aurita: [aggregation, asexual, reproduction, sexual] 1. combines sexual reproduction (union of gametes) with asexual reproduction (budding off juvenile medusae from the polyp). [Photo]

black mangrove / Avicennia germinans: [diversity] 1. explanation for survival of mangroves in salt water. 2. salt-secreting physiology. [Photo]

black mangrove / Avicennia germinans: [diversity] 1. description of flowers and seed-dropping. [Photo]

black mangrove / Avicennia germinans: [diversity] 1. growth of propagules. [Photo]

acorn barnacle / Balanus sp.: [larva, reproduction] 1. barnacles have nauplius larvae that spend several weeks in the plankton feeding on phytoplankton. [Photo]

acorn barnacle / Balanus sp.: [photo courtesy] 1. photograph courtesy Kristi Miller, DFO, Nanaimo. Miller [Photo]

triggerfish / Balistes sp.: [morphology, predator, quiz] 1. part of a quiz relating to facial morphology of predatory fishes. [Photo]

queen triggerfish / Balistes vetula: [coloration, eye, function] 1. eye coloration may function as recognition cue within the species. [Photo]

queen triggerfish / Balistes vetula: [sound] 1. example of sounds emitted from this species. [Photo]

queen triggerfish / Balistes vetula: [defense, spine] 1. large erectable dorsal spine for defense. [Video]

queen triggerfish / Balistes vetula: [video courtesy] 1. video courtesy Andy Stockbridge, Belize. Stockbridge [Video]

queen triggerfish / Balistes vetula: [defense, spine] 1. dorsal spine can be locked into place. [Photo]

queen triggerfish / Balistes vetula: [defense, spine] 1. spine apparatus is derived from 2 ancestral dorsal spines; one acting as a "trigger". [Photo]

queen triggerfish / Balistes vetula: [diet, morphology, nutrition, predator] 1. comment that set-back eyes may protect them from the spines of their sea-urchin prey. [Video]

queen triggerfish / Balistes vetula: [diet, nutrition, predator] 1. diet includes sea urchins as well as crabs, polychaetes, sea cucumbers, clams and even some algae. [Photo]

queen triggerfish / Balistes vetula: [diet, ecology, keystone, nutrition] 1. loss in 1983 of sea urchins Diadema antillarum leads in a "keystone cascade" to triggerfishes shifting their diet to crabs and chitons. Reinthal et al. 1984 [Photo]

cup coral / Ballanophyllia elegans: [behaviour, defense, nematocyst] 1. arms of a temperate-dwelling sun star Solaster stimpsoni carefully avoid touching the nematocyst-laden tentacles of the cup coral . [Photo]

corkscrew anemone / Bartholomea annulata: [coloration, function, warning] 1. colours may warn non-prey species to stay away. [Photo]

corkscrew anemone / Bartholomea annulata: [chemical, competition, nematocyst, stinging cells] 1. heavy chemical damage to a coral from the anemone's stinging tentacles. [Video]

corkscrew anemone / Bartholomea annulata: [chemical, competition, nematocyst, stinging cells] 1. heavy chemical damage to mound coral Montastrea sp. from the anemone's stinging tentacles. [Photo]

corkscrew anemone / Bartholomea annulata: [stinging cells, treatment] 1. immediate treatment for nematocyst (stinging cell) toxins. [Text only]

corkscrew anemone / Bartholomea annulata: [chemical, defense, nematocyst, toxicity] 1. close view of defensive tentacles. [Photo]

corkscrew sea anemone / Bartholomea annulata: [defense, nematocyst, toxicity] 1. nematocysts toxic to humans. [Photo]

corkscrew anemone / Bartholomea annulata: [cleaner, habitat, host, video courtesy] 1. sometimes host Pederson cleaner shrimps Periclimenes pedersoni. [Photo]

corkscrew anemone / Bartholomea annulata: [cleaner, habitat, host] 1. acting as "host" for a pair of Pederson cleaner shrimps Periclimenes pedersoni. [Photo]

corkscrew anemone / Bartholomea annulata: [commensal] 1. a quiz on which organism in the photograph is commensal with the corkscrew anemone . [Photo]

corkscrew anemone / Bartholomea annulata: [nematocyst, toxic] 1. highly toxic sea anemone...for people. [Video]

corkscrew anemone / Bartholomea annulata: [nematocyst, toxic] 1. highly toxic sea anemone for many reef organisms, including mound corals Montastrea sp.. [Photo]

ctenophore / Beroe sp.: [diet, nutrition] 1. primarily eat other ctenophores from the plankton. [Photo]

opisthobranch / Berthella stellata: [chemical, defense, acid] 1. secretes acid from its skin. [Photo]

opisthobranch / Berthella stellata: [photo courtesy, acid] 1. photograph courtesy Sandra Millen, University of British Columbia. Millen [Photo]

sea slug / Berthellina quadridens: [carnivory] 1. in Curacao feeds on corals, including mound corals Montastraea spp.. Vermeij 2010 [Photo]

social feather duster worm / Bispira brunnea: [diversity] 1. example of diversity of Caribbean worms. [Video]

spotfin hogfish / Bodianus puchellus: [cleaner, coloration, function, juvenile] 1. cleaners are brightly coloured ("poster" colours) to enable client fishes to recognise them. Thresher 1977 [Photo]

Spanish hogfish / Bodianus rufus: [diet, nutrition] 1. include sea urchins, crabs, and snails in their diet. [Photo]

Spanish hogfish / Bodianus rufus: [nutrition, predation] 1. a fish with evident wounds. [Video]

Spanish hogfish / Bodianus rufus: [cleaner, symbiosis, client] 1. gets cleaned by some cleaner gobies Elacatinus sp.. [Video]

Spanish hogfish / Bodianus rufus: [cleaner, juvenile, symbiosis] 1. cleans a great barracuda Sphyraena barracuda. [Photo]

cleaner goby / Bodianus rufus: [cleaner, symbiosis] 1. clean a great barracuda Sphyraena barracuda. [Photo]

Spanish hogfish / Bodianus rufus: [cleaner, cleaning, juvenile, symbiosis] 1. a juvenile is cleaning several creole wrasses Clepticus parrae . [Video]

Spanish hogfish / Bodianus rufus: [behaviour, mate, spawn] 1. details of sexual coloring, harems, and spawning. Warner & Robertson 1978 [Photo]

Spanish hogfish / Bodianus rufus: [behaviour, competition, mate] 1. males become aggressive when competing for mates. Rocha 2000 [Photo]

Spanish hogfish / Bodianus rufus: [behaviour, mate, spawn] 1. spawns daily with each member of his harem. [Photo]

Spanish hogfish / Bodianus rufus: [behaviour, cleaner, client, juvenile] 1. large sampling of cleaners and client fishes in St. Croix. 2. creole wrasses Clepticus parrae often cleaned by juvenile Spanixh hogfishes. Johnson & Ruben 1988 [Photo]

Spanish hogfish / Bodianus  rufus: [cleaner, juvenile, symbiosis] 1. juvenile cleans an unidentified client fish. [Photo]

Spanish hogfish / Bodinianus rufus: [diet, nutrition, predator] 1. photograph shows an individual eating a sea urchin. [Photo]

Spanish hogfish / Bodinianus rufus: [diet, nutrition, predator] 1. photograph shows an individual eating a black sea urchin Diadema antillarum. [Photo]

Spanish hogfish / Bodinianus rufus: [photo courtesy] 1. photograph courtesy Anne Dupont, Florida. Dupont [Photo]

sea cucumber / Bohadschia argus: [defense, toxic, Cuvierian tubules] 1. this Indo-Pacific species is shown releasing Cuvierian tubules from its anus. These are quite sticky and may have saponin-like toxins known as holothurin. [Video]

peacock flounder / Bothus lunatus: [camouflage, coloration] 1. skin coloration matches background presumably for camouflage. [Photo]

peacock flounder / Bothus lunatus: [camouflage, coloration] 1. photos of fishes on different-coloured habitats to assess their abilities to match to their backgrounds. [Photo]

peacock flounder / Bothus lunatus: [chromatophore, coloration, melanin, pigment] 1. dark colours are created by deposits of black pigment melanin. [Photo]

peacock flounder / Bothus lunatus: [predator] 1. camouflaged appearance is advantageous for ambush predators. [Photo]

peacock flounder / Bothus lunatus: [ambush predator, camouflage] 1. usually well camouflaged against any sort of of background. [Photo]

peacock flounder / Bothus lunatus: [diet, nutrition] 1. eat octopuses and squids. [Photo]

peacock flounder / Bothus lunatus: [predator] 1. observed to eat sharpnose puffer Canthigaster rostrata in the Bahamas. Gochfeld & Olson 2009 [Photo]

gorgonian / Briareum asbestinum: [food, predation, preference] 1. eaten preferentially over other gorgonian species by bearded fireworms Hermodice carunculata. Vreeland & Lasker 1989 [Photo]

bubble snail / Bulla occidentalis: [predation] 1. in Florida possibly eaten live, but certainly the dead remains scavenged by, worms Chloeia viridis. [Photo]

copepod / Calanus sp.: [diet, nutrition, phytoplankton] 1. drawings of various copepods courtesy Alistair Hardy, Oxford University. Hardy 1956 [Drawing]

copepod / Calanus sp.: [photo courtesy] 1. photograph courtesy Elaine Humphrey, University of British Columbia. Humphrey [Photo, Drawing]

copepod / Calanus spp.: [diet, nutrition, phytoplankton] 1. copepods eat phytoplankton and are, in turn, eaten by various zooplanktivores such as fishes, tubeworms, and the like. Gottfried & Roman 1989 [Drawing]

hermit crab / Calcinus tibicen: [symbiont] 1. are sometime found amongst the branches of fire coral Millepora sp.. 2. commensalism or parasitism?. Brown & Edmunds 2013 [Photo]

azure vase sponge / Callyspongia plicifera: [coloration, symbiont] 1. sponge colours owe to pigment deposits and to presence of cyanobacterial symbionts. [Photo]

azure vase sponge / Callyspongia plicifera: [diversity] 1. example of diversity of Caribbean sponges. [Photo]

vase sponge / Callyspongia plicifera: [coloration, function, toxicity] 1. colours of sponges show poor correlation with toxicity of their flesh. [Photo]

vase sponge / Callyspongia plicifera: [cartoon, defense, spicule, structure] 1. converses with a SCUBA-diver about its possible defenses against getting eaten by predatory turtles and fishes. [Drawing]

vase sponge / Callyspongia plicifera: [defense, spicule, structure] 1. nice photograph. [Photo]

azure vase sponge / Callyspongia plicifera: [larva, recruitment] 1. larva is short-lived, leading to recruitment close to the parent sponge. [Photo, Drawing]

vase sponge / Callyspongia spicifera: [asexual, recruitment, reproduction] 1. fish and turtle bitings may produce new asexually produced sponge individuals. [Photo]

branching vase sponge / Callyspongia vaginalis: [coloration, symbiont] 1. sponge colours owe to pigment deposits and to presence of cyanobacterial symbionts. [Photo]

vase sponge / Callyspongia vaginalis: [description, feeding, nutrition, water flow] 1. description of water flow and feeding. [Photo]

volcano sponge / Calyx podatypa: [diversity] 1. example of diversity of Caribbean sponges. [Photo]

whitespotted filefish / Cantherhines macroceros: [defense, spine] 1. fish swims slowly around reef. [Video]

whitespotted filefish / Cantherhines macroceros: [video courtesy] 1. video courtesy Andy Stockbridge, Belize. Stockbridge [Video]

whitespotted filefish / Cantherhines macroceros: [defense, spine] 1. erectable spine may lock into crevices and/or prevent a predator from easily swallowing its prey. [Photo]

whitespotted filefish / Cantherhines macroceros: [photo courtesy] 1. photograph courtesy Anne Dupont, Florida. Dupont [Photo]

whitespotted filefish / Cantherhines macroceros: [] 1. scarring on tail region. [Photo]

ocean triggerfish / Canthidemis  sufflamen: [nutrition, phytoplankton] 1. introduction to topic of nutrition through eating of phytoplankton . [Video]

ocean triggerfish / Canthidemis  sufflamen: [larva, reproduction] 1. larva bears resemblance to adult. Ontogeny & systematics of fishes vol. 1 1984 [Photo, Drawing]

sharpnose puffer / Canthigaster rostrata: [danger, toxicity] 1. flesh may be toxic, as in pufferfishes of the fugu kind. 2. fugu is a Japanese delicacy - a slice of sashimi taken from a pufferfish that after consumption is mouth-tingling, to say the least!. [Photo]

sharpnose puffer / Canthigaster rostrata: [photo courtesy] 1. photograph courtesy Anne Dupont, Florida. Dupont [Photo]

sharpnose puffer / Canthigaster rostrata: [treatment, poison] 1. description of treatment for "fugu" (pufferfish" poisoning. [Text only]

sharpnose pufferfish / Canthigaster rostrata: [tetrodotoxin] 1. pufferfishes have toxic livers, skin, and gonads. 2. description of how post-ingestive conditioning works for a predator eating a prey with poisonous flesh. [Photo]

sharpnose pufferfish / Canthigaster rostrata: [photo courtesy] 1. photograph courtesy Anne Dupont, Florida. Dupont [Photo]

pufferfish / Canthigaster valenti: [coloration, defense, mimicry] 1. field test of Batesian mimicry using two south-Pacific fishes. Caley & Schluter 2003 [Photo]

pufferfish / Canthigaster valentini: [coloration, defense, mimicry, toxicity] 1. field experiment in Lilzard Island, Australiato test the concept of Batesian mimicry. 2. plastic models that mimic the pufferfish are ignored by fish-eating groupers and snappers. Caley & Schluter 2003 [Photo, Drawing]

sharpnose puffer / Canthigaster  rostrata: [defense, predation, tetrodotoxin, toxicity] 1. despite being potentially toxic, is eaten by peacock flounder Bothus lunatus. Gochfeld & Olson 2009 [Photo]

bar jack / Carangoides ruber: [behaviour] 1. swims across the reef with a hogfish and trumpetfish. [Photo]

horse eye jack / Caranx latus: [diet, planktivorous] 1. eat fishes, shrimps, and other crustaceans from the plankton (=planktonivorous or planktivorous). [Photo]

horse-eye jack / Caranx latus: [camouflage] 1. skin reflectibility may act as camouflage. [Video]

horse eye jack / Caranx latus: [danger, poison, ciguatera] 1. one example of many large predators whose flesh may be toxic owing to sequestration of ciguatera toxins obtained from their prey fishes. [Photo]

bar jack / Caranx latus: [behaviour, nutrition, predator] 1. video of streamlined-looking bar jacks swimming. [Video]

bar jack / Caranx latus: [ambush predator, behaviour, nutrition] 1. optimal attack strategy for a bar jack . 2. study done on an Hawai'ian species of jack. Sancho 2000 [Photo, Drawing]

bar jack / Caranx latus: [behaviour, nutrition, predator, cooperative hunting] 1. shown hunting with a southern stingray Dasyatis americana. [Photo]

bar jack / Caranx ruber: [behaviour, nutrition, predator] 1. photograph of a hunting team of bar jack and stingray Dasyatis americana. [Photo]

bar jack / Caranx ruber: [diet, nutrition, predator] 1. hunting team of bar jack and southern stingray Dasyatis americana. [Video]

bar jack / Caranx ruber: [behaviour, cooperative hunting, nutrition] 1. associating with a southern stingray Dasyatis americana. [Photo]

grey reef shark / Carcharhinus amblyrhinchos: [behaviour, cleaning] 1. the rough skin of the shark is used by a reef-runner fish Elagatis bipinnulata to clean itself against. Papastamapiou et al. 2007 [Photo]

silky shark / Carcharhinus falciformis: [diversity] 1. example of shark diversity in the Caribbean area. [Video]

silky shark / Carcharhinus falciformis: [video courtesy] 1. video courtesy Andy Stockbridge, Belize. Stockbridge [Video]

bull shark / Carcharhinus leucas: [predator] 1. in Belize may prey upon large spawning aggregations of mutton snappers Litjanus analis. Graham & Castellanos 2012 [Photo]

reef shark / Carcharhinus perezi: [video courtesy] 1. video courtesy Andy Stockbridge, Belize. Stockbridge [Video]

reef shark / Carcharhinus perezi: [video courtesy] 1. video courtesy Andy Stockbridge, Belize. Stockbridge [Video]

silky shark / Carcharhinus  falciformis: [diet, nutrition, predator] 1. eat squids and octopuses, as well as fishes. Sierra et al. 2001 [Photo]

reef shark / Carcharhinus  perezi: [diet, nutrition, predator] 1. eat squids and octopuses, as well as fishes. Sierra et al. 2001 [Photo]

silky shark / Carcharhinus  falciformis: [diversity] 1. example of diversity of Caribbean sharks, rays, and marine mammals. [Video]

reef shark / Carcharhinus  perezi: [diversity] 1. example of diversity of Caribbean sharks, rays, and marine mammals. [Video]

reef shark / Carcharinus perezi: [parasitism, symbiosis] 1. shark seems to be "sharksucker-less" . Ritter 2002 [Photo]

duppy crab / Cardisoma guanhumi: [diversity] 1. an example of diversity of semiterrestrial Caribbean crustaceans. [Photo]

duppy crab / Cardisoma guanhumi: [diversity] 1. an example of diversity of semiterrestrial Caribbean crustaceans. [Photo]

duppy crab / Cardisoma guanhumi: [bite, defense] 1. large fighting claw. 2. description of semi-terrestrial life-style. []

loggerhead turtle / Caretta caretta: [diversity] 1. example of diversity of Caribbean turtles. [Photo]

loggerhead turtle / Caretta caretta: [digestion, function, morphology, nutrition] 1. comparison of functional morphology of sea-turtle guts in relation to their diets . 2. turtles compared are hawksbills, greens, loggerheads, and leatherbacks. Bjorndal 1985 [Photo]

upside-down jellyfish / Cass : [behaviour, nutrition, photosynthesis, zooxanthellae] 1. presence of photosynthesising symbionts in their gut tissue may explain their upside-down behaviour . [Photo]

upside down jellyfish / Cassiopea frondosa: [behaviour] 1. an individual caught up in a sponge. 2. reproductive pattern of settlement and metamorphosis similar to that of moon jellies Aurita spp.. [Photo]

upside down jellyfish / Cassiopea xamachana: [coloration, function, toxicity, warning] 1. colours warn of toxicity to ward off predators. [Photo]

king helmet shell / Cassis tuberosa: [coloration, pigment, melanin] 1. colours created by melanin pigment and other metabolic by-products. [Photo]

whitespotted filefish / Catherhines macroceros: [carnivory, nutrition, predation] 1. being eaten by a burrowing sea anemone. [Photo]

whitespotted filefish / Catherhines macroceros: [photo courtesy] 1. photograph courtesy Linda Ianiello, Florida. Ianiello [Photo]

green alga / Caulerpa racemosa: [diversity, seaweed] 1. one of many diverse Caribbean seaweeds. [Photo]

green alga / Caulerpa racemosa: [competition, overgrowth] 1. overgrowing reef, including a barrel sponge Xestospongia muta. [Photo]

green alga / Caulerpa racemosa: [competition, overgrowth] 1. growth characteristics. [Photo]

green alga / Caulerpa racemosa: [quiz] 1. example of of what Jamaican SCUBA-divers and snorkelers want LEAST to see on their dives. [Photo]

green alga / Caulerpa radians: [diet, experiment, nutritional value, preference] 1. second most preferred algal food for bucktooth parrotfishes in St. Croix . [Photo, Drawing]

green alga / Caulerpa taxifolia: [competition, overgrowth] 1. this aggressive overgrowth alga has become a pest in the Mediterranean Sea since its introduction there from the Caribbean Sea. [Text only]

coney / Cephalopholis fulvus: [parasitism, symbiont] 1. shown here with a parasitic isopod Anilicra sp. attached under its eye. DeLoach 1999 [Photo]

graysby / Cephalopholis  cruentata: [conservation, invasive, predation] 1. laboratory experiments comparing different levels of predation from lionfishes and graysby groupers on survival of fairy basselets Gramma loreto and blackcap basselets G. melacara. Kindinger & Anderson 2016 [Photo]

coney grouper / Cephalopholis  fulva: [cleaning, client] 1. study on stress in cleaning gobies when they confront and have to deal with predatory (piscivorous) client fishes. Soares et al. 2012 [Photo]

snail / Cerithium  litteratum: [nutrition, prey, quiz, size refuge] 1. may reach size refuge from predation by hogfishes quickly. Wainwright 1987 [Photo]

snail / Cerithium  littoratum: [nutrition, predation, prey] 1. a favoured prey for spiny lobsters Panulirus argus in Florida is the snail Cerithium littoratum. Cox et al. 1997 [Graph]

Atlantic spadefish / Chaetodipterus faber: [behaviour, cleaner, diet, nutrition] 1. eat jellyfishes in open water, and hydroids and sea anemones in shallow water. Hayse 1990 [Photo]

Atlantic spadefish / Chaetodipterus faber: [cleaning, client, symbiosis] 1. being cleaned by several cleaner gobies Elacatinus sp.. [Photo]

Atlantic spadefish / Chaetodipterus  faber: [diet] 1. chief dietary items. [Photo]

foureye butterflyfish / Chaetodon capistratus: [coloration, reproduction, mate] 1. species that mate for life. [Photo]

foureye butterflyfish / Chaetodon capistratus: [coloration, defense, mimicry] 1. video showing foureye butterflyfishes swimming over the reef. [Video]

foureye butterflyfish / Chaetodon capistratus: [coloration, defense, mimicry] 1. discussion of function of false eyespots. [Photo]

foureye butterflyfish / Chaetodon capistratus: [coloration, defense, function, morphology] 1. discussion of alternative ideas for the evolution of false eyespots. [Photo]

foureye butterflyfish / Chaetodon capistratus: [coloration, eyespot, function] 1. false eyespots on tail may facilitate following of one individual of a species by another. Kelly & Hourigan 1983 [Photo]

foureye butterflyfish / Chaetodon capistratus: [eyespot, function, juvenile] 1. what is the value of having more eyespots in the juvenile stage than in the adult stage?. [Photo]

foureye butterflyfish / Chaetodon capistratus: [photo courtesy] 1. photograph courtesy this office of the US Government. US Geological Service [Photo]

foureye butterflyfish / Chaetodon capistratus: [defense] 1. eyebars and false eyes act indefense to misdirect predators. [Video]

foureye butterflyfish / Chaetodon capistratus: [video courtesy] 1. video courtesy Andy Stockbridge, Belize. Stockbridge [Video]

foureye butterflyfish / Chaetodon capistratus: [defense] 1. eyebars and false eyespots misdirect and confuse attacks by potential predators. [Photo]

foureye butterflyfish / Chaetodon capistratus: [morphology, predator] 1. part of a quiz dealing with topic of common features of a predatory fish. [Photo]

foureye butterflyfish / Chaetodon capistratus: [diet, nutrition] 1. move through the reef. [Video]

foureye butterflyfish / Chaetodon capistratus: [diet, function, morphology, mouth] 1. comparison of functional morphology of mouths of different fish species in relation to diet. [Photo, Drawing]

foureye butterflyfish / Chaetodon capistratus: [diet] 1. dietary preferences in St. Croix. Neudecker 1985 [Photo, Graph]

foureye butterflyfish / Chaetodon capistratus: [diet] 1. dietary (corals) preferences in St. Croix. Neudecker 1985 [Photo, Graph]

foureye butterflyfish / Chaetodon capistratus: [diet, nutrition, predator] 1. in the San Blas Islands of Panama prefer polyps of the gorgonian Pseudopterogorgia bipinnata to other prey. Lasker 1985 [Photo]

foureye butterflyfish / Chaetodon capistratus: [parasitism, symbiont] 1. has a parasitic isopod Anilocra sp. attached under its eye. [Photo]

four eye butterflyfish / Chaetodon capistratus: [competition, space, territory] 1. partial explanation of pairing by butterflyfishes. [Photo]

foureye butterflyfish / Chaetodon capistratus: [predator] 1. in Bonair prey adventitiously on pre-dusk release of gamete bundles by brain corals Diploria labyrinthiformis. Muller & Vermeij 2011 [Photo]

butterflyfish / Chaetodon lunula: [coloration, defense, mimicry] 1. have common colour patterns of butterflyfishes the world over evolved to advertise unpalatibility?. 2. known as Mullerian mimicry. [Photo]

raccoon butterflyfish / Chaetodon lunula: [coloration, defense, function, mimicry] 1. idea that potential prey fishes with their own defenses may evolve a similar colour pattern to present a common "don't eat me" message to predators. 2. Mullerian mimicry. Neudecker 1989 [Photo]

spotfin butterflyfish / Chaetodon ocellatus: [behaviour, coloration] 1. video showing following behaviour in butterflyfishes. [Video]

spotfin butterflyfish / Chaetodon ocellatus: [behaviour, coloration] 1. video showing swimming behaviour. [Video]

butterflyfish / Chaetodon ocellatus: [coloration, defense, mimicry] 1. have common colour patterns of butterflyfishes the world over evolved to advertise unpalatibility?. 2. known as Mullerian mimicry. [Photo]

spotfin butterflyfish / Chaetodon ocellatus: [coloration, defense, function, mimicry] 1. idea that potential prey fishes with their own defenses may evolve a similar colour pattern to present a common "don't eat me" message to predators. 2. Mullerian mimicry. Neudecker 1989 [Photo]

spotfin butterflyfish / Chaetodon ocellatus: [coloration, function, eyespot] 1. false eyespots on tail may facilitate following of one individual of a species by another. Kelly & Hourigan 1983 [Photo]

spotfin butterflyfish / Chaetodon ocellatus: [mate, reproduction] 1. pair-bonding in butterflyfishes is for mating and territorial defense. [Video]

spotfin butterflyfish / Chaetodon ocellatus: [mate, reproduction] 1. pair-bonding in butterflyfishes is for mating and territorial defense. [Video]

butterflyfish / Chaetodon spp.: [escape, quiz] 1. among paired-fin swimmers, butterflyfishes have a superior body design than other species. Gerstner 1999 [Drawing]

butterflyfish / Chaetodon spp.: [competition, mate, territory] 1. aspects of pair-bonding in butterflyfishes. Hourigan 1989 [Photo]

banded butterflyfish / Chaetodon striatus: [coloration, defense, function, eyebar] 1. potential defensive value of eye-stripes or eye-bars. [Photo]

banded butterflyfish / Chaetodon striatus: [coloration, defense, function, eyebar] 1. potential defensive value of eye-stripes or eye-bars. [Photo]

spotfin butterflyfish / Chaetodon striatus: [camouflage, coloration, function, eyebar] 1. bears both a camouflaging eye-bar a possible eye-mimicking spot on the tail. [Photo]

banded butterflyfish / Chaetodon striatus: [colour, perception, ultraviolet] 1. simulation of how it might appear to another species with ultraviolet perception. Marshall et al. 2003 [Photo]

banded butterflyfish / Chaetodon striatus: [chromatophore, coloration, pigment] 1. explanation for how white and black colours are created. [Photo]

banded butterflyfish / Chaetodon striatus: [eyespot, function, juvenile] 1. function of eyespots in juvenile stage; not present in adult. [Photo]

banded butterflyfish / Chaetodon striatus: [photo courtesy] 1. photograph courtesy Bart Haze. Haze [Photo]

banded butterflyfish / Chaetodon striatus: [morphology, predator, quiz] 1. part of a quiz relating to facial morphology of predatory fishes. [Photo]

banded butterflyfish / Chaetodon striatus: [behaviour, defense, escape, morphology] 1. body morphology of butterflyfishes enables nimble escape through the reef. Gerstner 1999 [Photo]

banded butterflyfish / Chaetodon striatus: [behaviour, competition, mate, territory] 1. both sexes in pair-bonding have their own special duties. Fricke 1985 [Photo]

green alga / Chaetomorpha linum: [competition, overgrowth] 1. overgrowing algae suffocate organisms beneath. [Photo]

green alga / Chaetomorpha linum: [competition, overgrowth] 1. such overgrowths can kill a reef. [Photo]

green alga / Chaetomorpha linum: [competition, cyanobacteria, overgrowth] 1. nutrient enrichment may lead to overgrowth by algae and cyanobacteria. [Photo]

green turtle / Chelonia mydas: [diversity] 1. example of diversity of Caribbean turtles. [Video]

green turtle / Chelonia mydas: [diversity] 1. example of diversity of Caribbean turtles. [Photo]

green turtle / Chelonia mydas : [diversity] 1. video showing release of radio-tagged individual in Bahia de los Angeles, Mexico. [Video]

green turtle / Chelonia mydas: [digestion, function, morphology, nutrition] 1. comparison of functional morphology of sea-turtle guts in relation to their diets . 2. turtles compared are hawksbills, greens, loggerheads, and leatherbacks. Bjorndal 1985 [Photo]

green turtle / Chelonia mydas: [behaviour, habitat] 1. often have resting spots in seagrass beds. [Video]

green turtle / Chelonia mydas: [diet, nutrition, nutritional value] 1. digestion of seagrasses aided by fermentation regions in hindgut. Bjordal 1985 [Photo]

green turtle / Chelonia mydas: [acontia, conservation, culture, hatchling] 1. showing hatchling turtles being released in Barbados. 2. cultured at a hatchery facility in Costa Rica, operated by the legendary Archie Carr. [Photo]

green turtle / Chelonia mydas: [ecology, overfishing] 1. overfishing has had profound effects on seagrass biology. Jackson 2001 [Photo]

green turtle / Chelonia mydas: [ecology, grazing, overfishing] 1. effects of overfishing of green turtles on seagrass health since historical times. Jackson 2001 [Photo]

green turtle / Chelonia mydas: [culture, life cycle] 1. numerous juveniles being released in Barbados after being cultured in Costa Rica. [Photo]

green turtle / Chelonia mydas: [juvenile] 1. close view of hatchling. [Photo]

green turtle / Chelonia mydas: [culture, quiz] 1. quiz on best conditions out of a selection to release hatchlings to ensure survival. Gyuris 1992 []

black turtle / Chelonia mydas aggasizzi: [diversity] 1. example of diversity of Caribbean turtles. [Photo]

bridled burrfish / Chilomycterus antennatus: [coloration, defense, mimicry, Batesian] 1. questionable idea that otherwise palatable juvenile burrfishes may mimic the colour pattern of toxic sea hares Aplysia dactylomela. [Photo]

juvenile striped burrfish / Chilomycterus schoepfii: [photo courtesy] 1. photograph courtesy Brandi Noble and NOAA, US Government. Noble [Photo]

striped burrfish / Chilomycterus schoepfii: [Batesian, coloration, defense, mimicry] 1. juveniles can inflate, but spines are soft and likely ineffective against fish-eating predators. Heck & Weinstein 1978 [Photo]

striped burrfish / Chilomycterus schoepfii: [photo courtesy] 1. photograph courtesy FISHGUY website. FISHGUY [Photo]

worm / Chloeia viridis: [predator] 1. in Florida eats snails, including opisthobranchs Bullia occidentalis. [Photo]

worm / Chloeia viridis: [photo courtesy] 1. photos courtesy Anne Dupont, Florida. Dupont [Photo]

worm / Chloeia viridis: [photo courtesy] 1. photos courtesy Anne Dupont, Florida. Dupont [Photo]

chicken liver sponge / Chondrilla nucula: [competition, overgrowth] 1. appears to be easily overgrowing a tough competitor, the fire coral Millepora. [Photo]

chicken liver sponge / Chondrilla nucula: [chemical, defense, toxicity] 1. chemical defenses are important to sponges. [Photo]

chicken liver sponge / Chondrilla nucula: [nutrition, predation] 1. this species is No. 1 on the food-preference list of a hawksbill turtle Eretmochelys imbricata. Meylan 1988 [Photo]

chicken liver sponge / Chondrilla  nucula: [chemical, competition] 1. competes chemically and successfully with a fire coral Millepora sp.. Hill 1998 [Photo]

blue chromis / Chromis cyanea: [behaviour, diet, habitat] 1. swim over reef face during day hunting for crustacean food. 2. planktivorous, or "plankton-eater". [Photo]

blue chromis / Chromis cyanea: [camouflage, coloration] 1. photo series showing how blue colours camouflage at a distance. [Photo]

blue chromis / Chromis cyanea: [coloration, pigment] 1. comments on coloration of reef fishes. [Video]

blue chromis / Chromis cyanea: [ciguatoxin, poison] 1. would a bottom-eating bicolor damselfish such as Stegastes partitus have less sensitivity to ciguatera poisoning than a planktivorous species such as a blue chromis, Chromis cyanea?. 2. an idea based upon a comparable Australian study. Capra et al. 1988 [Photo]

blue chromis / Chromis cyanea: [defense, refuge] 1. duck into coral heads for refuge. [Photo]

blue chromis / Chromis cyanea: [behaviour, diet, nutrition] 1. form a "wall of mouths" on the reef crest. 2. eat zooplankton. Sierra et al. 2001 [Photo]

blue chromis / Chromis cyanea: [feeding, morphology, mouth, nutrition] 1. rapid jaw protrusion creates negative pressure to suck in zooplankton prey. [Photo, Animation]

blue chromis / Chromis cyanea: [behaviour, morphology, nutrition] 1. slow swimmers stay close to the reef and have less streamlined body shape. Hobson 1991 [Photo, Animation]

blue chromis / Chromis cyanea: [competition, mate] 1. male blue chromis courts mate. [Video]

blue chromis / Chromis cyanea: [video courtesy] 1. video courtesy Andy Stockbridge, Belize. Stockbridge [Video]

blue chromis / Chromis cyanea: [competition, mate, courtship] 1. male courting a female. [Video]

blue chromis / Chromis cyanea: [video courtesy] 1. video courtesy Andy Stockbridge, Belize. Stockbridge [Video]

brown chromis / Chromis multilineata: [behaviour, diet, habitat] 1. swim over reef face during day hunting for crustacean food. 2. planktivorous, or "plankton-eater". [Photo]

brown chromis / Chromis multilineata: [behaviour, diet, habitat] 1. swim over reef face during day hunting for crustacean food. 2. planktivorous, or "plankton-eater". [Video]

brown chromis / Chromis multilineata: [feeding, nutrition, planktivorous] 1. feeding from the plankton. [Video]

brown chromis / Chromis multilineata: [behaviour, diet, nutrition] 1. form a "wall of mouths" on the reef crest. 2. eat zooplankton. Sierra et al. 2001 [Photo]

brown chromis / Chromis multilineata: [larva, predator] 1. these and related pomacentrid fishes form a "wall of mouths" at the reef crest, intercepting and eating larval invertebrates. [Photo]

chromis / Chromis sp.: [larva, metamorphosis, settlement] 1. comments on choices by larval fishes for settlement sites. [Video]

top shell / Cittarium pica: [shell] 1. most desirable shell-resource for West Indian hermit crabs Coenobita sp. because of their large size. [Photo]

cladophora / Cladophora spp.: [edibility, structure] 1. ranked 2nd "most herbivore-edible" of 6 Caribbean algal species . 2. filamentous structure, but fragmentable. [Photo]

green alga / Cladophora vagabunda: [nutrient, eutrophication] 1. cyclical effects of watershed drainage and tropical storms leading to eutrophication, turbidity changes, and algal and sponge (Cliona lampa) overgrowths. 2. deadly effects on survival of brain corals Diploria strigosa. Littler & Littler 2007 [Photo]

bluebell tunicate / Clavelina puertosecensis: [diversity] 1. example of diversity of Caribbean tunicates. [Photo]

bluebell tunicate / Clavelina puertosecensis: [coloration, function, toxicity, warning] 1. bright colours may warn of toxicity. [Photo]

bluebell tunicate / Clavelina puertosecensis: [food, nutrition, bacteria] 1. eats bacteria and other organic particles. [Photo]

blue bell tunicate / Clavelina puertosecensis: [diet, nutrition, phytoplankton] 1. eats phytoplankton along with bacteria and other small organic particles. [Photo]

bluebell tunicate / Clavelina puertosecensis: [diversity] 1. an example of a vividly coloured solitary Caribbean tunicate. [Photo]

blue bell tunicate / Clavelina secensis: [asexual, reproduction] 1. a colonial species of the "social" type; that is, each member of the colony is joined together by tubular connections or stolons through which nutrients flow. [Photo]

creole wrasse / Clepticus parrae: [diet, nutrition] 1. primarily eat zooplankton, including jellyfishes and ctenophores. [Photo]

creole wrasse / Clepticus parrae: [cleaning, client, symbiosis] 1. being cleaned by a juvenile hogfish Bodianus rufus. [Video]

creole wrasse / Clepticus parrae: [behaviour, mate, spawn] 1. details of sexual coloring and spawning. Warner & Robertson 1978 [Photo]

creole wrasse / Clepticus parrae: [coloration, hermaphrodite, reproduction] 1. sexual stages are similar in appearance. [Photo]

creole wrasse / Clepticus parrae: [behaviour, cleaner, client] 1. large sampling of cleaners and client fishes in St. Croix. 2. creole wrasses by far the most cleaned client fish. Johnson & Ruben 1988 [Photo]

boring sponge / Cliona delitrix: [parasitism, symbiont] 1. has many polyps of the zoanthid Parazoanthus parasiticus interspersed between the sponge's inhalent openings . Crocker & Reiswig 1981 [Photo]

boring sponge / Cliona delitrix: [behaviour, cartoon, mutualism, parasitism] 1. an inhalent opening of the sponge discusses its possible interactions with a polyp of the sponge zoanthid Parazoanthus parasiticus. [Drawing]

boring sponge / Cliona lampa: [nutrient, eutrophication] 1. cyclical effects of watershed drainage and tropical storms leading to eutrophication, turbidity changes, and algal and sponge overgrowths. 2. deadly effects on survival of brain corals Diploria strigosa. Littler & Littler 2007 [Photo]

red boring sponge / Cliona sp.: [competition, overgrowth] 1. part of a 3-way competition for space with a mat tunicate Trididemnum solidum and a mound coral. [Photo]

soldier crab / Coenobita clypeatus: [diversity] 1. an example of diversity of semiterrestrial Caribbean crustaceans. [Photo]

soldier crab / Coenobita clypeatus: [bite, defense] 1. filmed on the shore of the back-reef area. [Video]

hermit crab / Coenobita clypeatus: [defense, protection, shell] 1. these semiterrestrial crabs find and use empty snail shells for protection. [Photo]

hermit crab / Coenobita sp.: [competition, shell] 1. competition is intense for adequate-sized shell resources. [Photo]

hermit crab / Coenobita sp.: [competition, food] 1. a crowd of hermit crabs squabble over a piece of apple. [Video]

hermit crab / Coenobita sp.: [competition, food, interference] 1. hermit crabs fight over food, shell resources, and probably mates. [Photo]

boulder coral / Colpophyllia natans: [bleaching, mesenterial filament, nutrition] 1. bleached corals may seek out nutrients via mesenterial filaments that are extended from the mouths of their polyps. Marhaver 2011 [Photo]

giant anemone / Condylactis gigantea: [diversity] 1. example of one common relative of Caribbean corals. [Video]

giant anemone / Condylactis gigantea: [diversity] 1. an example of an hydrozoan relative of Caribbean stony corals. [Photo]

giant anemone / Condylactis gigantea: [colour, function, host] 1. anemone hosts shrimp. [Photo]

giant anemone / Condylactis gigantea: [coloration, function, warning] 1. function of coloration in this species. [Video]

giant anemone / Condylactis gigantea: [coloration, function, warning] 1. colours may warn non-prey species to stay away. [Photo]

giant anemone / Condylactis gigantea: [coloration, function, toxicity, warning] 1. how could red-tipped tentacles be for warning, when at depth they would appear black owing to attenuation of red wavelengths. [Photo]

giant anemone / Condylactis gigantea: [coloration, function, toxicity, warning] 1. if coloration is good for warning of toxicity, how do we explain this colorless individual?. [Photo]

giant anemone / Condylactis gigantea: [chemical, competition, space] 1. does well in competition with fire coral Millipora sp.. [Video]

giant anemone / Condylactis gigantea: [chemical, competition, space] 1. competitively dominant against boulder coral Montastrea sp.. [Photo]

giant anemone / Condylactis gigantea: [behaviour, defense, protection] 1. several species of small reef fishes, such as gobies and wrasses, may temporarily seek shelter in the protective tentacle canopies of these anemones. [Video]

giant anemone / Condylactis gigantea: [behaviour, defense, refuge] 1. giant sea anemone Condylactis gigantea may act as refuge for small fishes, such as wrasses. [Video]

giant anemone / Condylactis gigantea: [refuge] 1. may act as refuge for up to 10 species of Caribbean reef fishes. Hanlon & Kaufman 1976 [Photo]

giant anemone / Condylactis gigantea: [cleaner, refuge] 1. may act as refuge for different species of cleaner fishes, including gobies Elacatinus spp.. [Photo]

great sea anemone / Condylactis gigantea: [diet, nutrition] 1. eat zooplankton, as well as other larger invertebrates. [Photo]

great sea anemone / Condylactis gigantea: [nutrition, photosynthesis, symbiont, zooxanthellae] 1. photosynthesising symbionts contribute to the anemone's nutrition. [Video]

great sea anemone / Condylactis gigantea: [host, nutrition, photosynthesis, symbiont, zooxanthellae] 1. hosts communicate chemically with their symbionts to provide more nutritive photosynthates. Fitt 1985 [Photo]

giant anemone / Condylactis gigantea: [cleaner, host, symbiosis] 1. often act as "hosts" for spotted cleaner shrimps Periclimenes yucatanicus. [Photo]

giant anemone / Condylactis gigantea: [photosynthesis, symbiont, zooxanthellae] 1. sea anemones, like corals, have photosynthesising plant cells, zooxanthellae, in their tissues. [Photo]

giant anemone / Condylactis gigantea: [mutualism, symbiosis] 1. sometimes banded clinging crabs Mithrax cinctimanus live within the tentacle protection of the anemone. [Photo]

giant anemone / Condylactis gigantea: [mutualism, symbiosis] 1. may harbour squat anemone shrimps Thor amboinensis within their tentacles . []

giant anemone / Condylactis gigantea: [mutualism, symbiosis] 1. commonly harbour spotted cleaner shrimps Periclimenes yucatanicus in their tentacles . []

giant anemone / Condylactis gigantea: [symbiosis] 1. may host symbiotic cleaner shrimps Periclimenes sp. within its protective tentacle canopy . [Video]

giant anemone / Condylactis yucatanicus: [behaviour, defense, protection] 1. often provide shelter within their protective tentacles for spotted cleaner shrimps Periclimenes yucatanicus. [Photo]

cone shell / Conus spurious: [sting] 1. description of stinging mechanism and some cautionary advice. [Photo, Drawing]

cone shell / Conus spurious: [sting, treatment] 1. advice for what to do if you get stung. [Text only]

alphabet cone shell / Conus spurius: [description, sting] 1. description of how the stinging spear and toxin work. [Photo, Drawing]

alphabet cone shell / Conus spurius: [description, sting, treatment] 1. suggested treatment for a sting. [Text only]

snail / Coralliophila abbreviata: [diet, nutrition, predator] 1. in Barbados this snail favours a diet of mound corals Montastrea annularis. Ott & Lewis 1972 [Photo]

snail / Coralliophila abbreviata: [predator] 1. experiments on coral damage inflicted by feeding activities on elkhorn coral Acropora palmata in the Florida Keys. Miller 2001 [Photo, Graph]

snail / Coralliophila abbreviata: [photo courtesy] 1. photograph courtesy Brian Silliman, Duke University, NC. Silliman [Photo]

coral snail / Coralliophila caribaea: [feeding, parasitism, predator] 1. description of its parasite-like behaviour of sucking out the gastrovascular contents of polyps of mound corals Montastrea cavernosa. Martin et al. 2014 [Photo]

snail / Coralliophila sp.: [diet, nutrition] 1. consumes coral tissues by extra-bodily secretion of digestive enzymes. Brawley & Adey 1982 [Photo]

red coral / Corallium sp.: [diversity] 1. red "corals" not found in the Caribbean. [Photo]

bridled goby / Coryphopterus glaucofraenum: [chromatophore] 1. introductory video on use of chromatophores to create colour and colour changes. [Video]

bridled goby / Coryphopterus glaucofraenum: [video courtesy] 1. video courtesy Andy Stockbridge, Belize. Stockbridge [Video]

peppermint goby / Coryphopterus lipe;rnes: [diet, omnivore] 1. diet consists of bottom-dwelling copepods, ophiuroids, bivalves, and sometimes algae. [Photo]

blue-green alga / Cyanobacteria : [nutrition, photosynthesis, primary productivity] 1. view of cyanobacterial growth on the reef. [Video]

blue-green alga / Cyanobacteria : [nutrition, photosynthesis, pigment, primary productivity] 1. review of types of photosynthetic pigments in cyanobacteria. [Photo]

blue-green alga / Cyanobacteria : [photo courtesy] 1. photograph courtesy Steve Pennings, University of Houston. Pennings [Photo]

bluegreen alga / Cyanophyta : [competition, overgrowth] 1. bluegreen alga or bacteria are highly toxic overgrowth organisms on the reef. [Photo]

isopod / Cymotha exigua: [parasitism] 1. parasitises the mouth cavity of various fishes. [Photo]

isopod / Cymotha exigua: [photo courtesy] 1. Photograph courtesy Matthew Gilligan, Savannah, Georgia. Gilligan [Photo]

isopod / Cymotha exigua: [photo courtesy] 1. Photograph courtesy Matthew Gilligan, Savannah, Georgia. Gilligan [Photo]

flamingo tongue shell / Cyphoma gibbosum: [diversity] 1. example of diversity of Caribbean molluscs. [Photo]

flamingo tongue shell / Cyphoma gibbosum: [coloration, function, toxicity, warning] 1. these snails have toxic flesh. [Video]

flamingo tongue shell / Cyphoma gibbosum: [coloration, function, toxicity, warning] 1. colorful mantle flaps are retractable. [Video]

flamingo tongue shell / Cyphoma gibbosum: [chemical, defense, toxicity, prostaglandins] 1. many gorgonian species contain toxic chemicals (prostaglandins) but are still eaten by these snails. 2. also Gerhart 1986 Mar Ecol Progr Ser 31: 255. Vrolijk & Targett 1992 []

flamingo tongue shell / Cyphoma gibbosum: [cartoon, chemical, defense, prostaglandins, toxicity] 1. discussion about benefits of forming aggregations between some flamingo-tongue shells. [Drawing]

flamingo tongue shell / Cyphoma gibbosum: [defense, spicule, structure] 1. spend less time on gorgonians with higher levels of spicule content. Harvell & Suchanek 1987 [Photo, Graph]

flamingo tongue shell / Cyphoma gibbosum: [cartoon, defense, spicule, structure] 1. conversation between 2 flaming-tongue shells regarding the possible role of spicules in the defense of their prey gorgonians. [Photo, Drawing]

flamingo tongue shell / Cyphoma gibbosum: [chemical, coloration, defense, poison] 1. view of snails on prey gorgonian. [Video]

flamingo tongue shell / Cyphoma gibbosum: [aposemetism, chemical, coloration, defense, poison] 1. poisonous flesh and bright colours suggests warning to potential predators. 2. warning coloration is termed aposemetism. Gerhart 1986 [Photo]

flamingo tongue shell / Cyphoma gibbosum: [coloration, defense, poison] 1. comments on the function of mantle retraction. [Photo]

flamingo tongue shell / Cyphoma gibbosum: [cartoon] 1. philosophical and other comments on the function of mantle retraction. [Photo, Drawing]

flamingo tongue shell / Cyphoma gibbosum: [diet, nutrition] 1. eating a gorgonium, likely a warty sea rod Eunicea sp.. [Video]

flamingo tongue shell / Cyphoma gibbosum: [diet, nutrition] 1. individuals in the process of eating a gorgonium, likely warty sea rods Eunicea sp.. [Photo]

flamingo tongue shell / Cyphoma gibbosum: [carnivory, nutrition, predator, regeneration] 1. create wound sites on prey gorgonians that may become infected with algae and disease. Ruesink & Harvell 1990 [Photo]

flamingo tongue shell / Cyphoma gibbosum: [diversity] 1. example of diversity of Caribbean molluscs. [Photo]

flamingo tongue shell / Cyphoma gibbosum: [carnivory] 1. description of it feeding on gorgonians in Mona Island, Puerto Rico in large numbers. Scharer & Nemeth 2010 [Photo]

yellow cowrie / Cypraea sp.: [mucus, protection] 1. all snails produce a protective coating of mucus during crawling. [Photo]

yellow cowrie / Cypraea sp.: [photo courtesy] 1. photograph courtesy John Lewis, McGill University, Montreal. Lewis [Photo]

stareye hermit crab / Dardanus venosus: [diversity] 1. an example of diversity of Caribbean crustaceans. [Photo]

stareye hermit crab / Dardanus venosus: [behaviour, defense, protection] 1. enjoy the protection conferred by having a protective growth of stinging hydroids on their shells. [Photo]

stareye hermit crab / Dardanus venosus: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Anne Dupont, Florida. Dupont [Photo]

stareye hermit crab / Dardanus venosus: [defense, shell] 1. finds empty snail shells for protection. [Photo]

stareye hermit crab / Dardanus venosus: [photo courtesy] 1. photograph courtesy Anne Dupont, Florida. Dupont [Photo]

southern stingray / Dasyatis americana: [camouflage, counter-shading] 1. photo showing counter-shaded bodies. [Photo]

southern stingray / Dasyatis americana: [diversity] 1. example of diversity of Caribbean sharks, rays, and marine mammals. [Photo]

southern stingray / Dasyatis americana: [danger, sting] 1. morphology of sting in tail. [Photo]

southern stingray / Dasyatis americana: [danger, sting] 1. recommended treatment for stingray stings. [Photo]

southern stingray / Dasyatis americana: [defense, hide] 1. when threatened burrow into sand. [Video]

southern stingray / Dasyatis americana: [video courtesy] 1. video courtesy Andy Stockbridge, Belize. Stockbridge [Video]

southern stingray / Dasyatis americana: [behaviour, nutrition, predator, cooperative hunting] 1. shown hunting with a bar jack Caranx latus. [Photo]

southern stingray / Dasyatis americana: [behaviour, nutrition, predator] 1. photograph of a hunting team of stingray and bar jack Caranx ruber. [Photo]

southern stingray / Dasyatis americana: [diet, nutrition, predator] 1. hunting team of stingray and bar jack Caranx ruber. [Video]

southern stingray / Dasyatis americana: [feeding] 1. stingrays being fed in Stingray City, Grand Cayman Island. [Photo]

southern stingray / Dasyatis americana: [behaviour, feeding, nutrition] 1. "puddling" behaviour stirs up and/or attracts mysid shrimps Mysis sp.. [Video]

southern stingray / Dasyatis americana: [diet, nutrition] 1. favoured prey in the Bahamas are crustaceans, fishes, and shellfishes. Gilliam & Sullivan 1993 [Photo]

southern stingray / Dasyatis americana: [diet, nutrition] 1. favoured prey in the Bahamas are crustaceans, fishes, and shellfishes. Stokes & Holland 1992 [Photo]

southern stingray / Dasyatis americana: [feeding, morphology, jaw] 1. close view of mollusc-crushing jaws. [Video]

southern stingray / Dasyatis americana: [feeding] 1. feeding fishes at designated sites for SCUBA-diver enjoyment may be beneficial to reef health. Hawkins et al. 1999 [Photo]

southern stingray / Dasyatis americana: [competition, map, space] 1. habitat use in Glover's Reef, Belize. Tilley et al. 2013 [Photo]

golden crinoid / Davidaster rubiginosa: [diversity] 1. example of the diversity of Caribbean echinoderms. [Photo]

golden crinoid / Davidaster rubiginosa: [diversity] 1. example of the diversity of Caribbean echinoderms. [Photo]

golden crinoid / Davidaster rubiginosa: [defense, spine, nutritional value] 1. arms are spiny and lacking in nutritional value. [Photo]

golden crinoid / Davidaster sp.: [diversity] 1. example of the diversity of Caribbean echinoderms. [Photo]

crinoid / Davidaster sp.: [diet, nutrition] 1. feed primarily on zooplankton. [Photo]

crinoid / Davidaster sp.: [diet, nutrition, phytoplankton] 1. eats phytoplankton along with other small organic particles. [Photo]

crinoid / Davidaster sp.: [symbiosis] 1. a quiz to identify what symbiotic relationships are evident in a photograph featuring a crinoid Davidaster sp., a sponge Mycale laevis, a red sponge, and a sea-rod gorgonian, all growing on a boulder coral Montastrea sp.. [Photo]

mackerel scad / Decapterus  macarellus: [defense] 1. shows the difficulty that a predator would have in selecting a suitable prey from a school of fishes. [Video]

frond oyster / Dendostrea frons: [symbiosis] 1. quiz on what symbiotic relationships are evident in a photograph featuring a gorgonian, a sponge, a fire coral, and a frond oyster. [Photo]

frond oyster / Dendostrea frons: [symbiosis] 1. quiz on what symbiotic relationships are evident in a photograph featuring a gorgonian, a sponge, a fire coral, and a frond oyster. [Photo]

cathedral coral / Dendrogyra cylindrus: [diversity] 1. one of a selection of Caribbean stony corals. [Photo]

pillar coral / Dendrogyra cylindrus: [defense, size refuge, structure] 1. adult size is too big for most predators. [Photo]

pillar coral / Dendrogyra cylindrus: [defense, skeleton, structure] 1. for defense corals rely on heavy skeleton and stinging cells (nematocysts). [Video]

pillar coral / Dendrogyra cylindrus: [video courtesy, skeleton] 1. video courtesy Andy Stockbridge, Belize. Stockbridge [Video]

cathedral coral / Dendrogyra cylindrus: [bleaching, description] 1. short description of bleaching process. [Photo]

pillar coral / Dendrogyra cylindrus: [diet, feeding, nutrition, suspension-feeding] 1. checking for signs of mucus-net suspension-feeding. [Video]

pillar coral / Dendrogyra cylindrus: [video courtesy, suspension-feeding] 1. video courtesy Andy Stockbridge, Belize. Stockbridge [Video]

pillar coral / Dendrogyra cylindrus: [reproduction, spawn] 1. spawn synchronously with the moon cycle, 2-3d after full moon in August. Neely et al. 2013 [Photo]

hydroid / Dentitheca dendritica: [competition, overgrowth] 1. this species of hydroid is favoured by zoanthids Parazoanthus tunicans as hosts to grow on. [Photo]

leatherback turtle / Dermochelys coriacea: [diversity] 1. example of diversity of Caribbean turtles. [Photo]

leatherback turtle / Dermochelys coriacea: [photo courtesy] 1. photograph courtesy M. Hastings. [Photo]

leatherback turtle / Dermochelys coriacea: [behaviour, carnivory, diet, nutrition] 1. shown eating a moon jelly Aurelia aurita. 2. description of feeding behaviour. Jones 2002 [Photo]

leatherback turtle / Dermochelys coriacea: [photo courtesy] 1. photograph courtesy Mike Salmon. Salmon [Photo]

leatherback turtle / Dermochelys coriacea: [digestion, function, morphology, nutrition] 1. comparison of functional morphology of sea-turtle guts in relation to their diets . 2. turtles compared are hawksbills, greens, loggerheads, and leatherbacks. Bjorndal 1985 [Photo]

leatherback turtle / Dermochelys coriacea: [life cycle] 1. female leaves beach after laying eggs. [Photo]

leatherback turtle / Dermochelys coriacea: [photo courtesy] 1. photograph courtesy Todd Jones, University of British Columbia. Jones [Photo]

black sea urchin / Diadema antillarum: [danger, spine] 1. video of sea urchin. [Video]

black sea urchin / Diadema antillarum: [danger, poison, spine] 1. video of sea urchin. [Photo]

black sea urchin / Diadema antillarum: [quiz, spine, treatment] 1. description of treatment for urchin spines along with a quiz on which treatment would be the best choice. [Text only]

black sea urchin / Diadema antillarum: [behaviour, defense, protection] 1. in this photograph is giving temporary shelter to several yellowline arrow crabs Stenorhynchus seticornia. [Photo]

black sea urchin / Diadema antillarum: [behaviour, defense, protection] 1. in this photograph is giving temporary shelter to several yellowline arrow crabs Stenorhynchus seticornia. [Photo]

black sea urchin / Diadema antillarum: [refuge] 1. spine canopy may act as refuge for small fishes. [Photo]

black sea urchin / Diadema antillarum: [defense, spine] 1. behavioral response to shadows is to wave the spines about. [Video]

black sea urchin / Diadema antillarum: [nutrition, predation] 1. with their armament of spines, sea urchins present a physical challenge to potential predators. [Video]

black sea urchin / Diadema antillarum: [predation] 1. photograph shows one being eaten by a Spanish hogfish Bodinianus rufus. [Photo]

black sea urchin / Diadema antillarum: [Aristotles lantern, food, nutrition, adaptive morphology] 1. Aristotle's lantern changes in relative size in relation to food availability. Levitan 1992 [Photo]

black sea urchin / Diadema antillarum: [Aristotles lantern, nutrition, adaptive morphology] 1. inter-relationship of human population size, fishing intensity on sea urchins, algal abundance, and relative lantern size. Levitan 1992 [Photo, Graph]

black sea urchin / Diadema antillarum: [behaviour, feeding, nutrition] 1. grazing by sea urchins may create an area bare of algae or "halo" surrounding the reef. [Video]

black sea urchin / Diadema antillarum: [diet, nutrition, bioerosion] 1. not uncommon for them to eat corals. Bak & van Eys 1975 [Photo]

black sea urchin / Diadema antillarum: [behaviour, feeding, nutrition] 1. nocturnal foraging for algae may create a clear area or "halo" around the reef, free of seaweeds. Carpenter 1984 [Photo]

black sea urchin / Diadema antillarum: [alga, herbivory, nutrition, overgrowth, mortalilty] 1. mass Caribbean-wide die-off of urchins in 1983-84 leads to algal overgrowth. Edmunds & Carpenter 2001 [Photo]

black sea urchin / Diadema antillarum: [alga, herbivory, nutrition, mortalilty] 1. recovery in 1996 after mass Caribbean-wide die-off of urchins in 1983-84 leads to speeding removal of macroalgae. Aronson & Precht 2000 [Photo]

black sea urchin / Diadema antillarum: [mortalilty, nutrition, seaweed] 1. urchin recovery in 1996 after 1983 die-off leads to Caribbean-wide loss of macroalgal cover. 2. considers alternative explanation for seaweed loss. Aronson 1988 [Graph]

black sea urchin / Diadema antillarum: [competition, herbivory, nutrition] 1. do sea urchins and herbivorous fishes compete for the same food resources?. Foster 1985 [Photo]

black sea urchin / Diadema antillarum: [ecology, keystone, nutrition] 1. consideration of its status as a keystone "predator". [Text only]

black sea urchin / Diadema antillarum: [ecology, food web, keystone, nutrition] 1. overview of population "crash" in 1983 and eventual community repercussions leading to increased numbers of herbivorous fishes. Carpenter 1985 [Graph, Text only]

black sea urchin / Diadema antillarum: [diversity, herbivore, keystone] 1. ecological repercussions following the Caribbean-wide die-off of urchins in 1983 would be predicted to lead to a decrease in diversity of herbivorous fishes. [Graph]

black sea urchin / Diadema antillarum: [alga, diversity, herbivore, keystone] 1. ecological repercussions following the Caribbean-wide die-off of urchins in 1983 includes increase in % cover of turf algae leading to decrease in cover of sponges and coralline algae. Liddell & Ohlhorst 1986 [Graph]

black sea urchin / Diadema antillarum: [cartoon, ecology, herbivore, keystone, nutrition] 1. conversation between a SCUBA diver and the philosopher Aristotle regarding the status of black sea urchins as "keystone predators". [Drawing]

black sea urchin / Diadema antillarum: [recruitment] 1. recruitment after major die-off in 1983 well underway within 2yr. Hunte & Younglao 1988 [Photo]

black sea urchin / Diadema antillarum: [aggression, behaviour, competition, food] 1. in Panama, this species aggressively interferes with access of the smaller species Echinometra lacunter to food, forcing it to inhabit less favourable crevice habitats. Shulman 1990 [Photo]

black sea urchin / Diadema antillarum: [mortalilty] 1. mass mortality in the San Blas Islands of Panama in 1982-1983. Lessios et al. 1984 [Text only]

black sea urchin / Diadema antillarum: [mortalilty] 1. poor recovery from mass-mortality events in the Florida Keys may point to worsening conditions on the reefs. Chiappone et al. 2002 [Photo]

black sea urchin / Diadema antillarum: [grazing, recruitment] 1. grazing activity removes algal growth, which favours settlement of coral larvae. Macintyre et al. 2005 [Photo]

black sea urchin / Diadema antillarum: [mortalilty] 1. recovery from 1980s population collapse may be favoured in shallow areas with large boulder or other corals. Jordan-Garza et al. 2008 [Photo]

black sea urchin / Diadema antillarum: [marine protected area, predator] 1. as numbers of predatory white grunts increase in marine protected areas, so their prey sea urchins are subject to enhanced predation. Harborne et al. 2009 [Photo]

black sea urchin / Diadema sp.: [defense, morphology, spine] 1. close view of spine showing barbs. [Photo]

brown alga / Dictyoptera sp.: [competition, overgrowth] 1. video of reef overgrown with brown alga. [Video]

brown seaweed / Dictyopteris delicatula: [chemical, defense, toxic] 1. extracts deter feeding for a number of herbivorous fishes. [Video]

brown seaweed / Dictyopteris delicatula: [chemical, defense, toxic] 1. extracts deter feeding of a number of herbivorous fishes, but not amphipod crustaceans that live on the alga and eat it. Hay et al. 1988 [Photo]

brown seaweed / Dictyopteris delicatula: [photo courtesy] 1. photograph courtesy Mark & Diane Littler, Smithsonian Institution, Washington. Littler [Photo]

brown seaweed / Dictyota sp.: [diet, experiment, nutritional value, preference] 1. fourth most preferred algal food for bucktooth parrotfishes in St. Croix. [Photo, Drawing]

brown alga / Dictyota sp.: [asexual, recruitment, reproduction] 1. comments on brittleness of seaweeds and possibilities for asexual reproduction. [Video]

brown alga / Dictyota sp.: [competition, overgrowth] 1. may be overgrown by blue-green algae Lyngbya sp.. Ritson-Williams et al. 2005 [Photo]

colonial tunicate / Didemnum solidum: [asexual, recruitment, reproduction] 1. colony grows in size by asexual budding. [Video]

didemnid tunicate / Didemnum sp.: [diversity] 1. example of diversity of Caribbean tunicates. [Photo]

colonial tunicate / Didemnum sp.: [asexual, recruitment, reproduction] 1. only colonial, not solitary, tunicates can reproduce asexually. [Photo]

colonial tunicate / Didemnum sp.: [diversity] 1. an example of a Caribbean colonial tunicate. [Photo, Drawing]

porcupinefish / Diodon histrix: [diet, nutrition, predator] 1. predator of sea urchins. [Photo]

porcupinefish / Diodon histrix: [diet, morphology] 1. swims along to comments about its strong jaws. [Video]

porcupinefish / Diodon histrix: [detritus, nutrition] 1. swims through water-borne particulates. [Video]

balloonfish / Diodon holocanthus: [behaviour, defense, morphology] 1. spines are modified scales with locking structures at their bases. [Photo]

balloonfish / Diodon holocanthus: [behaviour, ink, toxic] 1. when exposed to ink from sea hares Aplysia dactylomela it rapidly swims away. Carefoot & Pennings 1999 [Photo]

balloonfish / Diodon holocanthus: [diet] 1. diet includes sea urchins, as well as snails, clams, and crabs. [Photo]

balloonfish / Diodon holocanthus: [diet, morphology] 1. massive jaws for crushing shellfish prey. [Photo]

porcupinefish / Diodon hystrix: [coloration, function, toxicity, warning] 1. not distinctively coloured (to our eyes), but has erectable spines and flesh may be unpalatable. [Photo]

porcupinefish / Diodon hystrix: [behaviour, defense, morphology] 1. comment on puffing-up behaviour when disturbed. [Video]

porcupinefish / Diodon hystrix: [behaviour, defense, morphology] 1. spines are modified scales with locking structures at their bases. [Photo]

brain coral / Dioploria sp.: [bleaching] 1. examples of bleached brain corals. [Video]

brain coral / Dioploria strigosa: [competition, nutrition, colonise] 1. being colonised by invasive green algae Halimeda sp.. Wolf & Nugues 2013 [Photo]

red encrusting sponge / Diplastrella sp.: [competition, overgrowth] 1. easily overgrowing a rose-lace coral Stylaster roseus . [Photo]

sea bream / Diplodus annularis: [mouth, nutrition, prey, allometry] 1. mouth size grows in direct proportion to body size (i.e., isometric); preys on smallish invertebrates. 2. a Mediterranean species. Karpouzi & Stergiou 2003 [Graph]

brain coral / Diploria labyrinthiformis: [disease, ecology] 1. in the Virgin Islands, death of corals by black-band disease leads to new substrata for colonisation by other reef organisms. Antonius 1981 [Photo]

brain coral / Diploria labyrinthiformis: [hermaphrodite, pattern, reproduction] 1. brood their eggs, planula swims for 2-3d. [Photo]

brain coral / Diploria labyrinthiformis: [bleaching] 1. monitoring of bleaching and recovery . Fitt et al. 1993 [Photo]

brain coral / Diploria labyrinthiformis: [reproduction, spawn] 1. pre-dusk spawning in Bonaire may facilitate predation of gamete bundles by visual, daytime predators. Muller & Vermeij 2011 [Photo]

brain coral / Diploria sp.: [diversity] 1. one of a selection of Caribbean stony corals. [Photo]

brain coral / Diploria sp.: [chemical, competition] 1. stand-off position involving chemical competition with a tube sponge Pseudoceratina crassa. [Photo]

brain coral / Diploria sp.: [chemical, competition, overgrowth] 1. two brain corals are in "chemical-competition" standoff. [Photo]

brain coral / Diploria sp.: [bleaching] 1. video showing bleached brain corals. [Video]

brain coral / Diploria spp.: [chemical, competition, space] 1. two photographs showing competitive dominance against knobby sea-rod gorgonians Eunicia spp.. [Photo]

brain coral / Diploria spp.: [bleaching] 1. possible causes of bleaching in corals. Gleason & Wellington 1993 [Photo]

brain coral / Diploria spp.: [bleaching] 1. possible causes of bleaching in corals. Winter 1998 [Photo]

brain coral / Diploria strigosa: [competition, space] 1. tally of competitive interactions on a Florida Keys reef. 2. the brain coral is central in the photograph. Hill 1998 [Photo]

brain coral / Diploria strigosa: [competition, space] 1. tally of competitive interactions on a St. Croix reef. 2. the brain coral is central in the photograph. Suchanek et al. 1982 [Photo]

brain coral / Diploria strigosa: [competition, space] 1. tally of competitive interactions on a St. Croix reef. 2. the brain coral is central in the photograph. Vincente 1990 [Photo]

brain coral / Diploria strigosa: [competition, space] 1. compete for habitat space with Christmas-tree worms Spirobranchus giganteus. [Photo]

brain coral / Diploria strigosa: [competition, overgrowth] 1. maintains "standoff" distance with a brown encrusting sponge Ectoplasia ferox . Aerts 2000 [Photo]

brain coral / Diploria strigosa: [photo courtesy] 1. photograph courtesy Alexander Wolf, Bremen, Germany and the University of Bremen. Wolf 2012 [Photo]

brain coral / Diploria strigosa: [competition] 1. after being consumed by fireworms Hermodice carunculata the wounds on this coral may be infested with green algae Halimeda sp.. Wolf & Nugues 2013 [Photo]

brain coral / Diploria strigosa: [larva, reproduction] 1. has a planula larva. [Photo]

brain coral / Diploria strigosa: [nutrient, eutrophication] 1. cyclical effects of watershed drainage and tropical storms leading to eutrophication, turbidity changes, and algal and sponge overgrowths. Littler & Littler 2007 [Photo]

brain coral / Diploria  labyrinthiformis: [chemical, competition] 1. two brain corals fight it out with their polyps and stinging cells. [Photo]

brain coral / Diploria  labyrinthiformis: [bleaching, disease] 1. diseased and bleached. [Photo]

brown doris nudibranch / Discodoris evelinae: [autotomy, defense] 1. may drop parts of its body when disturbed by a predator. [Photo]

brown doris nudibranch / Discodoris evelinae: [photo courtesy] 1. photograph courtesy Anne Dupont, Florida. [Photo]

dorid nudibranch / Discodoris mortensi: [palatability, predation, spicule] 1. spicules are no deterrent to predation by this sponge-eating nudibranch. [Photo]

dorid nudibranch / Discodoris mortensi: [photo courtesy] 1. photograph courtesy Sandra Millen, University of British Columbia. Millen [Photo]

dorid nudibranch / Discodoris mortensi: [diet, digestion, nutrition] 1. feces of this sponge-eating species are filled with clean, digested spicules. [Photo]

dorid nudibranch / Discodoris mortensi: [photo courtesy] 1. photograph courtesy Sandra Millen, University of British Columbia. Millen [Photo]

pea crab / Dissodactylus primitivus: [behaviour, parasitism, symbiont, commensal] 1. crawls over the spines of a heart urchin Meoma ventricosa. 2. is the crab a commensal or parasite?. [Photo]

commensal crab / Dissodactylus  primitivius: [commensal, symbiosis] 1. commonly found on heart urchins Meoma ventricosa. [Photo]

nudibranch / Dondice occidentalis: [coloration, function, toxicity, warning] 1. toxic nematocysts are in brightly coloured sacs on the cerata. [Photo]

nudibranch / Dondice occidentalis: [photo courtesy] 1. photograph courtesy Anne Dupont, Florida. Dupont [Photo]

aeolid nudibranch / Dondice occidentalis: [defense, diet, nematocyst, nutrition] 1. how to handle a diet of nematocysts (stinging cells) from hydroid and sea-anemone prey. [Photo]

aeolid nudibranch / Dondice occidentalis: [photo courtesy] 1. photograph courtesy Anne Dupont, Florida. Dupont [Photo]

Humboldt squid / Dosidicus gigas: [chromatophore] 1. video of chromatophore activity in a dying male individual. [Video]

Humboldt squid / Dosidicus gigas: [jet-propulsion, mechanism] 1. video of jet of water produced by mantle contraction. [Video]

Humboldt squid / Dosidicus gigas: [defense, smokescreen, ink] 1. ink being released by a moribund squid. [Photo]

Humboldt squid / Dosidicus gigas: [defense, tetrodotoxin] 1. squids and other cephalopods have toxic salivary-gland secretions for killing prey and perhaps for use in defense. [Photo]

Humboldt squid / Dosidicus gigas: [bite, diet, morphology, nutrition] 1. close views of club-heading fishing tentacles, beak, and radula. [Photo]

sharksucker / Echeneis naucrates: [symbiosis] 1. attached to a spotted eagle ray Aetobatus narinari. [Video]

sharksucker / Echeneis naucrates: [parasitism, symbiosis] 1. reef shark swims but no sharksucker is visible in the picture. Ritter 2002 [Photo]

sharksucker / Echeneis naucrates: [diet, mutualism, parasitism] 1. sharksuckers are known to eat parasitic copepods from their hosts, suggesting that sometimes, at least, they may behave mutualistically. Vaske 1995 [Photo]

sharksucker / Echeneis naucrates: [behaviour, parasitism, symbiosis] 1. hitching a ride on a blue parrotfish Scarus coeruleus. [Video]

rock boring sea urchin / Echinometra lacunter: [defense, spine] 1. view of spines. [Photo]

burrowing sea urchin / Echinometra lacunter: [behaviour, ink, toxic] 1. when exposed to ink from sea hares Aplysia dactylomela it becomes more quiescent. Carefoot & Pennings 1999 [Photo]

sea urchin / Echinometra lacunter: [bite, feeding, nutrition, Aristotles lantern] 1. description of feeding. [Photo]

sea urchin / Echinometra lacunter: [aggression, competition, food, interference] 1. in Panama access to choice turf algae is interfered with by the larger species Diadema antillarum. 2. aggressive encounter competition. Shulman 1990 [Photo]

sea urchin / Echinometra lucunter: [feces, nutrition, adaptive morphology] 1. shows freshly released feces. [Photo]

sea urchin / Echinometra viridis: [larva, metamorphosis, settlement, life cycle] 1. description of general life cycle of a sea urchin. [Photo]

encrusting octopus sponge / Ectoplasia ferox: [competition, overgrowth] 1. examples of sponges that are strong overgrowth competitors. [Video]

encrusting octopus sponge / Ectoplasia ferox: [chemical, competition, overgrowth] 1. is overgrowing a gorgonian Pseudopterogorgia bipinnata, but meeting fierce chemical resistance. [Photo]

brown encrusting sponge / Ectoplasia ferox: [competition, overgrowth] 1. maintains "standoff" distance with a brain coral Diploria strigosa. Aerts 2000 [Photo]

brown encrusting sponge / Ectyoplasia ferox: [competition, space] 1. competition between sponge and coral. [Video]

encrusting octopus sponge / Ectyoplasia ferox: [chemical, competition] 1. chemically competing for space with a fan gorgonian Gorgonia sp.. [Photo]

brown encrusting sponge / Ectyoplasia ferox: [chemical, competition] 1. competition for space with a pink vase sponge Niphates digitalis. [Photo]

sharknose goby / Elacatinus evelynae: [cleaner, refuge] 1. may act as refuge for different species of cleaner fishes, including gobies Elacatinus spp.. [Photo]

sharknose goby / Elacatinus evelynae: [cleaner, mate] 1. in Barbados sharknose gobies may form sexual pairs, often associated with defense of a territory. Whiteman & Cote 2003 [Photo]

sharknose goby / Elacatinus evelynae: [cleaner, mate] 1. in Barbados sharknose gobies may form sexual pairs, often associated with defense of a territory. Whiteman & Cote 2004 [Photo]

sharknose goby / Elacatinus evelynae: [quiz] 1. quiz on advantages to a male goby to have a permanent mate over being on its own. Whiteman & Cote 2003 [Photo]

sharknose goby / Elacatinus evelynae: [cleaner, diet, habitat] 1. this species is a facultative cleaner, but growth is actually greater when it does not act as a cleaner. White et al. 2007 [Photo, Graph]

cleaner goby / Elacatinus genie: [cleaner, symbiosis] 1. cleaner goby waits for a client fish. [Photo]

cleaner goby / Elacatinus genie: [cleaning, station] 1. two cleaner gobies at a coral-head cleaning station. [Photo]

neon goby / Elacatinus oceanops: [cleaning, station] 1. cleaner goby waits at a coral-head cleaning station. [Photo]

cleaner goby / Elacatinus sp.: [behaviour, cleaner, diet, nutrition] 1. shown cleaning a pair of Atlantic spadefishes. [Photo]

cleaner goby / Elacatinus sp.: [photo courtesy] 1. photograph courtesy Anne Dupont, Florida. Dupont [Photo]

cleaner goby / Elacatinus sp.: [cleaner, symbiosis] 1. clean a stoplight parrotfish Sparisoma viride. [Photo]

cleaner goby / Elacatinus sp.: [client, symbiosis, cleaning] 1. cleaning a Nassau grouper Epinephalus striatus. [Photo]

cleaner goby / Elacatinus sp.: [cleaning, client, symbiosis] 1. cleaning a pair of Atlantic spadefishes Chaetodipterus faber . [Photo]

cleaner goby / Elacatinus sp.: [cleaner, cleaning, symbiosis] 1. cleaning a bluestriped lizardfish Synodus saurus. [Photo]

cleaner goby / Elacatinus sp.: [cleaner, cleaning, symbiosis] 1. observed cleaning an octopus Octopus sp. in St. Croix. Johnson & Chase 1982 [Photo]

cleaner goby / Elacatinus spp.: [cleaner, refuge] 1. may seek refuge within tentacles of giant anemones Condylactis gigantea. [Photo]

sharknose goby / Elacatinus  evelynae: [cleaner, symbiosis] 1. cleaning a coney Epinephelus fulvus . [Photo]

cleaner goby / Elacatinus  randalli: [cleaner, cleaning] 1. documentation of octopus being cleaned by cleaner goby Elacatinus randalli and cleaner wrasse Thalassoma noronhanum. Sazima et al. 2004 [Photo]

cleaning goby / Elacatinus  evelynae: [cleaning] 1. study on stress in cleaning gobies when they confront and have to deal with predatory (piscivorous) client fishes. Soares et al. 2012 [Photo]

reef runner / Elagatis bipinnulata: [behaviour, cleaning] 1. uses the rough skin of a grey reef shark Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos to clean itself against. Papastamapiou et al. 2007 [Photo]

solar powered slug / Elysia clarki: [chloroplast, photosynthesis] 1. chloroplasts sequestered come from multiple sources of algae. Curtis et al. 2006 [Text only]

lettuce sea slug / Elysia crispata: [coloration, symbiont] 1. skin colour owes to presence of photosynthesising plant-cell symbionts. [Photo]

sacoglossa / Elysia crispata: [camouflage, defense] 1. ruffled, almost iridescent colours act as pattern-disruptors. [Photo]

opisthobranch / Elysia crispata: [behaviour, ink, toxic] 1. when exposed to ink from sea hares Aplysia dactylomela it increases its mucus production. Carefoot & Pennings 1999 [Photo]

lettuce sea slug / Elysia crispata: [nutrition, photosynthesis] 1. nutrition gained mainly from photosynthetic symbionts. [Video]

lettuce sea slug / Elysia crispata: [behaviour, nutrition, photosynthesis] 1. need for light for its photosynthetic chloroplasts explains in part why it is out and about during daytime. [Video]

lettuce sea slug / Elysia crispata: [behaviour, feeding, nutrition] 1. eats algae and utilises the photosynthetic chloroplasts in its own nutrition. [Photo]

lettuce sea slug / Elysia crispata: [photo courtesy] 1. photograph courtesy Anne Dupont, Florida. Dupont [Photo]

lettuce sea slug / Elysia crispata: [chloroplast, digestion, feeding, nutrition] 1. description of how Elysia obtains the chloroplast organelles from its single-celled algal foods. 2. the chloroplasts continue to photosynthesise in the slug, supplying nutritive materials. [Drawing]

lettuce sea slug / Elysia crispata: [cartoon, chloroplast] 1. SCUBA diver discusses chloroplasts and their origin with a lettuce sea slug. [Drawing]

solar powered slug / Elysia crispata: [juvenile, nutrition] 1. juveniles eat seaweed species that differ from those eaten by the adults. 2. also sequester chloroplasts. Curtis et al. 2005 [Text only]

solar powered slug / Elysia timida: [chloroplast, nutrition, photosynthesis] 1. chloroplasts in the snail's tissues do photosynthesise, but they also can be eaten as food. Christa et al. 2014 [Drawing]

rock hind / Epinephelus adscensionis: [nutrition, preference, prey] 1. chief determinant of type of prey selected is size of the grouper. 2. this medium-sized grouper prefers crabs. Wainwright & Richard 1995 [Photo]

graysby / Epinephelus cruentatus: [defense, hide] 1. hide away during daytime and hunt at night. []

coney / Epinephelus fulvus: [nutrition, preference, prey] 1. chief determinant of type of prey selected is size of the grouper. 2. this medium-sized grouper primarily eats fishes. Wainwright & Richard 1995 [Photo]

coney / Epinephelus fulvus: [client, symbiosis] 1. being cleaned by a sharknose goby Elacatinus evelynae. [Photo]

coney / Epinephelus fulvus: [cleaning, client, symbiosis] 1. being cleaned by a pair of Pederson shrimps Periclimenes pedersoni. [Photo]

red hind sea bass / Epinephelus guttatus: [nutrition, preference, prey] 1. chief determinant of type of prey selected is size of the grouper. 2. this medium-sized grouper prefers to eat crabs. Wainwright & Richard 1995 [Photo]

goliathfish / Epinephelus itajara: [nutrition, preference, prey] 1. chief determinant of type of prey selected is size of the grouper. 2. this large-sized grouper eats turtles and fishes. Wainwright & Richard 1995 [Photo]

golilathfish / Epinephelus itajara: [diet, nutrition] 1. view of it swimming. [Video]

red grouper / Epinephelus morio: [conservation, invasive, predation] 1. density-manipulation experiments to determine additive or subtractive effects of lionfishes and red groupers on survival of juvenile reef fishes. Benkwitt 2016 [Photo]

red grouper / Epinephelus morio: [conservation, invasive, survival] 1. indirect interactions of red groupers Epinephelus morio with lionfishes Pterois spp. can modify direct predatory effects on juvenile reef fishes. Ellis & Falletti 2016 [Photo]

Nassau grouper / Epinephelus striatus: [coloration, eyebar] 1. idea that eye-bars on predatory fishes may act both to confuse their own predators and to disguise them from their prey. [Photo]

Nassau grouper / Epinephelus striatus: [coloration, function, pattern] 1. split-head colour pattern may act to disrupt the outline of the head. [Photo]

Nassau grouper / Epinephelus striatus: [defense, survival] 1. comments about life's challenges for various fishes. [Video]

Nassau grouper / Epinephelus striatus: [sound] 1. example of sounds emitted from this species. [Photo]

Nassau grouper / Epinephelus striatus: [predator, sensory] 1. review of senses of fish especially useful to it in its role as a predator. [Photo]

Nassau grouper / Epinephelus striatus: [hide] 1. strategy of hiding in the shade when a predator is bathed in sunlight. [Photo]

Nassau grouper / Epinephelus striatus: [morphology, predator] 1. series of 3 photographs dealing with the topic of common facial features of a predatory fish. [Photo]

Nassau grouper / Epinephelus striatus: [nutrition, predation] 1. observations on the death of a "pet" Nassau grouper "Fred" in Cayman Brac. 2. killed by a great barracuda Sphyraena barracuda. [Photo]

Nassau grouper / Epinephelus striatus: [behaviour, nutrition, predator, prey] 1. interesting interaction with a spotted moray Gymnothorax moringa. [Video]

Nassau grouper / Epinephelus striatus: [food, nutrition, predator, keystone] 1. groupers have high trophic status and cap numerous smaller "food webs". 2. may have the status of a "keystone" species. [Photo]

Nassau grouper / Epinephelus striatus: [keystone, nutrition, predator, food web] 1. comments on keystone-predator status. [Video]

Nassau grouper / Epinephelus striatus: [video courtesy, food web] 1. video courtesy Andy Stockbridge, Belize. Stockbridge [Video]

Nassau grouper / Epinephelus striatus: [cartoon, food web] 1. SCUBA-diver discusses the keystone-predator concept with a grouper. [Photo, Drawing]

Nassau grouper / Epinephelus striatus: [quiz, food web] 1. quiz on mouth features that give a clue as to relative size of prey eaten. [Photo]

Nassau grouper / Epinephelus striatus: [cleaning, client, symbiosis] 1. being cleaned by a cleaner goby Elacatinus sp.. [Photo]

Nassau grouper / Epinephelus striatus: [overfishing] 1. economically better to restrict fishing for species of special interest to SCUBA- and snorkel-tourists, such as groupers, sharks, and barracudas. Paz & Grimshaw 2001 [Photo]

Nassau grouper / Epinephelus striatus: [overfishing] 1. overfishing has greatly reduced their numbers Caribbean-wide. [Video]

Nassau grouper / Epinephelus striatus: [video courtesy] 1. video courtesy Andy Stockbridge, Belize. Stockbridge [Video]

Nassau grouper / Epinephelus striatus: [behaviour, spawn] 1. at Glover's Reef, Belize, undertake migrations to spawning sites. 2. 5-fold drop in numbers since 1975. Starr et al. 2007 [Photo]

spotted drum / Equetus punctatus: [coloration, eyebar, pattern] 1. idea that eye-bars on predatory fishes may act both to confuse their own predators and to disguise them from their prey. 2. stripy colour patterns disrupt their silhouetes from predators. [Photo]

spotted drum / Equetus punctatus: [coloration, eyebar, pattern] 1. idea that eye-bars on predatory fishes may act both to confuse their own predators and to disguise them from their prey. 2. stripy colour patterns disrupt their silhouetes from predators. [Photo]

spotted drum / Equetus punctatus: [reproduction, sexual] 1. sequence of stages in sexually reproducing forms. [Video]

spotted drum / Equetus punctatus: [video courtesy, settlement] 1. video courtesy Andy Stockbridge, Belize. Stockbridge [Video]

hawksbill turtle / Eretmochelys imbricata: [diversity] 1. example of diversity of Caribbean turtles. [Video]

hawksbill turtle / Eretmochelys imbricata: [diversity] 1. example of diversity of Caribbean turtles. [Photo]

hawksbill turtle / Eretmochelys imbricata: [video courtesy] 1. video courtesy Andy Stockbridge, Belize. [Video]

hawksbill turtle / Eretmochelys imbricata: [predator] 1. leathery barrel sponges Geodia neptuni do not have chemical defenses and are readily eaten by predators, including hawksbill turtles Eretmochelys imbricata and French angelfishes Pomacanthus paru. Meylan 1988 [Photo]

hawksbill turtle / Eretmochelys imbricata: [defense, predator, spicule] 1. spicules in a sponge are no defense against being eaten by this predator. [Video]

hawksbill turtle / Eretmochelys imbricata: [defense, predator, spicule] 1. spicules in a sponge Geodia neptuni are no defense against being eaten by this predator. [Photo]

hawksbill turtle / Eretmochelys imbricata: [morphology, predator, quiz] 1. quiz on what special features of gut or mouth morphology might we expect to find in this sponge-eating turtle. 2. nothing special to note. [Photo]

hawksbill turtle / Eretmochelys imbricata: [diet, nutrition] 1. in the Dominican Republic diet includes corallimorphs and zoanthids. Leon & Bjorndal 2002 []

hawksbill turtle / Eretmochelys imbricata: [diet, nutrition, predator] 1. eating a leathery barrel sponge Geodia neptuni. [Video]

hawksbill turtle / Eretmochelys imbricata: [video courtesy] 1. video courtesy Andy Stockbridge, Belize. Stockbridge [Video]

hawksbill turtle / Eretmochelys imbricata: [diet, nutrition, predator, video courtesy] 1. shown eating a leathery barrel sponge Geodia neptuni, No. 3 on its food-preference list. Meylan 1988 [Photo]

hawksbill turtle / Eretmochelys imbricata: [behaviour, feeding, nutrition, swimming] 1. statistics on dive depths, durations, surface intervals, and so on in Puerto Rico. van Dam & Diez 1997 [Drawing]

hawksbill turtle / Eretmochelys imbricata: [diet, nutrition, predator] 1. photos of turtle and French angelfish Pomacanthus paru eating a leathery barrel sponge Geodia neptuni. [Photo]

hawksbill turtle / Eretmochelys imbricata: [behaviour, cartoon, feeding, nutrition, swimming] 1. SCUBA-diver discusses the feelings of a hawksbill turtle about its involvement with French angelfishes when feeding . [Drawing]

hawksbill turtle / Eretmochelys imbricata: [digestion, function, morphology, nutrition] 1. comparison of functional morphology of sea-turtle guts in relation to their diets . 2. turtles compared are hawksbills, greens, loggerheads, and leatherbacks. Bjorndal 1985 [Photo]

hawksbill turtle / Eretmochelys imbricata: [conservation, culture, survival] 1. data provided by the Barbados Sea Turtle Project suggests that a ban on fishing for turtles has markedly increased nest numbers throughout Barbados. Beggs et al. 2007 [Photo, Graph]

hawksbill turtle / Eretmochelys imbricata: [asexual, recruitment, reproduction] 1. a turtle bites off bits of sponges to eat. [Video]

hawksbill turtle / Eretmochelys imbricata: [video courtesy] 1. video courtesy Andy Stockbridge, Belize. Stockbridge [Video]

hawksbill turtle / Eretmochelys imbricata: [life cycle] 1. turtle eating sponges from the reef. [Video]

hawksbill turtle / Eretmochelys imbricata: [behaviour, competition, food, preemptive] 1. competes preemptively with certain sponge-eating angefishes, such as French angelfish Pomacanthus paru, for food. [Photo]

hawksbill turtle / Eretmochelys imbricata: [behaviour, feeding, time budget] 1. time/depth recorders used to quantify feeding and resting behaviours in Little Cayman Island. Blumenthal et al. 2009 [Photo, Graph]

pencil slate urchin / Eucidaris tribuloides: [defense, spine] 1. blunt spines are structurally strong. [Photo]

strawberry tunicate / Eudistoma sp.: [coloration, function, toxicity, warning] 1. bright colours may warn of toxicity. [Photo]

tunicate / Eudistoma sp.: [food, nutrition, bacteria] 1. eats bacteria and other organic particles. [Photo]

sea rod / Eunicea sp.: [diversity] 1. examples of diversity of Caribbean gorgonians. [Photo]

warty sea rod gorgonian / Eunicea sp.: [predation] 1. being consumed by a flamingo-tongue shell Cyphoma gibbosum. [Photo, Video]

gorgonian / Eunicea sp.: [competition, food, preemptive] 1. polyps of a gorgonian compete for food. [Video]

gorgonian / Eunicea sp.: [competition, food, preemptive] 1. polyps of a gorgonian compete for food. [Photo]

gorgonian / Eunicea sp.: [competition, experiment, feeding] 1. experiment to test food competition among gorgonian polyps. [Photo, Drawing]

gorgonian / Eunicea sp.: [competition, experiment, food] 1. quiz on results of experiment that tests food competition among gorgonian polyps. [Text only]

warty sea rod gorgonian / Eunicea sp.: [nutrition, predation] 1. individuals being eaten by flamingo-tongue shells Cyphoma gibbosum. [Photo]

gorgonian / Eunicea sp.: [carnivory, predation] 1. wounds caused by snails and other predators may become fouled with algae. Gerhart 1990 [Photo]

sea rod gorgonian / Eunicea sp.: [symbiosis] 1. a quiz on what symbiotic relationships are evident in a photograph featuring a frond oyster, a sponge, a fire coral, and a sea-rod gorgonian. [Photo]

sea rod gorgonian / Eunicea sp.: [symbiosis] 1. a quiz to identify what symbiotic relationships are evident in a photograph featuring a crinoid Davidaster sp., a sponge Mycale laevis, a red sponge, and a sea-rod gorgonian, all growing on a boulder coral Montastrea sp.. [Photo]

sea rod gorgonian / Eunicea sp.: [commensal, symbiosis] 1. often host brittle stars, such as Ophioderma, and other species . 2. usually referred to as a commensalism, but harm of some kind must come to the host gorgonian . [Photo]

sea rod gorgonian / Eunicea sp.: [disease] 1. photo shows a portion killed by growth of red algae, compounded by colonisation by hydroids. [Photo]

sea rod gorgonian / Eunicea sp.: [recruitment, reproduction, asexual] 1. broken-off piece is re-growing. [Video]

sea rod gorgonian / Eunicea sp.: [asexual, recruitment, reproduction] 1. broken-off bits may regenerate and recolonise. [Video]

knobby sea rod gorgonian / Eunicea spp.: [chemical, competition, space] 1. two photographs showing competitive recessiveness against brain corals Diploria spp.. [Photo]

sea rod gorgonian / Eunicea spp.: [defense, predation, spicule] 1. spicules may provide defense against predation by flamingo-tongue shells Cyphoma spp.. Harvell & Suchanek 1987 [Photo, Graph]

spaghetti worm / Eupolymnia crassicornis: [nutrition] 1. feeds on detritus transported along food grooves in its tentacles. [Photo]

flower coral / Eusmilia fastigiata: [disease] 1. photo shows a possible disease-causing growth of red alga. [Photo]

flower coral / Eusmilia fastigiata: [asexual, growth] 1. growth in corals is by asexual budding. [Photo]

bath sponge / Euspongia sp.: [conservation, culture, overfishing] 1. after being overfished for decades, bath sponges are now being "farmed" for sale to tourists. [Photo]

long horn nudibranch / Facelina sp.: [diversity] 1. example of diversity of Caribbean molluscs. [Video]

long horn nudibranch / Facelina sp.: [photo courtesy] 1. photograph courtesy Anne Dupont, Florida. Dupont [Photo, Video]

long-horn nudibranch / Facelina sp.: [diversity] 1. example of diversity of Caribbean molluscs. [Photo]

long horn nudibranch / Facelina sp.: [photo courtesy] 1. photograph courtesy Anne Dupont, Florida. Dupont [Photo]

mushroom coral / Fungia  scutaria: [asexual, introduction, reproduction] 1. species introduced into Discovery Bay, Jamaica for study from the Red Sea, then released. Bush et al. 2004 [Photo]

dorid nudibranch / Gaitodoris mavis: [diet, nutrition] 1. a sponge-eater, one of about 90 related species that inhabit the Caribbean region. Gosliner 1997 [Photo]

dorid nudibranch / Gaitodoris mavis: [photo courtesy] 1. photograph courtesy Anne Dupont, Florida. Dupont [Photo]

ciguatera / Gambierdiscus toxicus: [danger, toxicity] 1. a toxic bottom-dwelling single-celled organism whose toxicity may be magnified as it goes up the food chain. [Drawing]

ciguatera / Gambierdiscus toxicus: [ciguatera, disease, toxicity] 1. description of disease outbreaks in coral-reef fishes. Landsberg 1995 [Text only]

ciguatera / Gambierdiscus toxicus: [toxicity] 1. outbreaks of ciguatera poisoning correlate well with degrees of ciguatera infestation of macroalgae. Taylor 1985 [Drawing]

ciguatera / Gambierdiscus toxicus: [disease, poison, ciguatoxin] 1. colonise algae that invade bleached areas of corals, such as boulder corals Montastrea sp.. 2. algae are eaten by herbivorous reef fishes that then become diseased. Kohler & Kohler 1992 [Photo]

semiterrestrial crab / Gecarcinus lateralis: [bite, defense] 1. digs burrows that reach seawater below. [Photo]

semiterrestrial crab / Gecarcinus lateralis: [chemical, defense, toxic] 1. many crabs will regurgitate gut fluids when disturbed, perhaps in defense of predation. [Photo]

leathery barrel sponge / Geodia neptuni: [defense, predation] 1. does not have chemical defenses and is readily eaten by hawksbill turtles Eretmochelys imbricata and French angelfishes Pomacanthus paru. Meylan 1988 [Photo]

sponge / Geodia neptuni: [defense, palatability, spicule] 1. spicules of this sponge incorporated into food-pellets do not decrease its palatability to bluehead wrasses Thallasoma bifasciatum. Chanas & Pawlik 1995 [Photo, Graph]

leathery barrel sponge / Geodia neptuni: [defense, structure] 1. view of sponge with a piece eaten from it, perhaps by the combined feeding activities of hawksbill turtles and angelfishes. [Photo]

leathery barrel sponge / Geodia neptuni: [predation] 1. specimen eaten probably by angelfishes. [Photo]

leathery barrel sponge / Geodia neptuni: [nutrition, predation] 1. showing bite marks from a hawksbill turtle Eretmochelys imbricata. [Video]

leathery barrel sponge / Geodia neptuni: [nutrition, predation] 1. being eaten by a hawksbill turtle Eretmochelys imbricata. Meylan 1988 [Photo]

leathery barrel sponge / Geodia neptuni: [nutrition, predation] 1. photos of turtle Eretmochelys imbricata and French angelfish Pomacanthus paru feeding on this species. [Photo]

nurse shark / Ginglymostoma cirratum: [diversity] 1. example of diversity of Caribbean sharks, rays, and marine mammals. [Video]

nurse shark / Ginglymostoma cirratum: [diet, nutrition, predator] 1. eat squids and octopuses, as well as fishes. Sierra et al. 2001 [Photo]

nurse shark / Ginglymostoma  cirratum: [diet, nutrition] 1. eat mainly fishes. [Photo]

nurse shark / Ginglymostoma  cirratum: [photo courtesy] 1. photograph courtesy Anne Dupont, Florida. Dupont [Photo]

opisthobranch / Glaucus atlanticus: [defense, nematocyst] 1. eats Portuguese-man-of-wars Physalia spp., sequesters the highly toxic nematocysts in its cerata tips, and stings human swimmers that happen to come in contact with the cerata. 2. strong evidence of a defensive role for the nematocyst sequestration. Thompson & Bennett 1969 [Photo]

opisthobranch / Glaucus atlanticus: [photo courtesy] 1. photograph courtesy Carol Lalli, Brentwood Bay, Victoria. Lalli [Photo]

opisthobranch / Glaucus atlanticus: [photo courtesy] 1. photograph courtesy Carol Lalli, Victoria. Lalli [Photo]

opisthobranch / Glaucus atlanticus: [carnivory, diet, nutrition, predator] 1. eat Portuguese-man-of-wars Physalia spp.. [Photo]

pilot whale / Globicepha spp.: [video courtesy] 1. video courtesy Andy Stockbridge, Belize. Stockbridge [Video]

pilot whale / Globicephala spp.: [diversity] 1. example of diversity of Caribbean sharks, rays, and marine mammals. [Video]

cleaner goby / Gobiosoma evelynae: [behaviour, cleaner, client] 1. large sampling of cleaners and client fishes in St. Croix. 2. creole wrasses Clepticus parrae most often cleaned by cleaner gobies. Johnson & Ruben 1988 [Photo]

cleaner goby / Gobiosoma genie: [colour, function, cleaner] 1. brightly coloured and visible from a distance to attract client fishes. [Photo]

cleaner goby / Gobiosoma oceanops: [cleaner, mutualism, symbiont] 1. cleaner goby waits for client fishes. [Video]

cleaner goby / Gobiosoma oceanops: [video courtesy] 1. video courtesy Andy Stockbridge, Belize. Stockbridge [Video]

neon goby / Gobiosoma oceanops: [cartoon, cleaner, client] 1. a French grunt and neon goby discuss their cleaner/client relationship. Arnal & Cote 1998 [Drawing]

cleaner goby / Gobiosoma sp.: [cleaner, coloration, function] 1. cleaners are brightly coloured ("poster" colours) to enable client fishes to recognise them. Thresher 1977 [Photo]

cleaner goby / Gobiosoma sp.: [cleaner, mutualism] 1. cleaner fishes don't seem to find soapfishes Rypticus saponaceus toxic in any way. [Photo]

goby / Gobiosoma sp.: [behaviour, defense, protection] 1. several species of small reef fishes, such as gobies and wrasses, may temporarily seek shelter in the protective tentacle canopies of giant anemones Condylactis gigantea. [Video]

mantid shrimp / Gonodactylus curacaoensis: [vision] 1. visual ability. [Photo]

mantid shrimp / Gonodactylus curacaoensis: [colour, eye, perception, vision] 1. quiz on comparative colour perception in a number of Caribbean reef animals. [Drawing]

mantid shrimp / Gonodactylus curacaoensis: [defense] 1. moving around its burrow. [Video]

mantid shrimp / Gonodactylus curacaoensis: [video courtesy] 1. video courtesy Andy Stockbridge, Belize. Stockbridge [Video]

fan gorgonian / Gorgonia flabellum: [competition, cyanobacteria, overgrowth, photo courtesy] 1. example of deadly overgrowth of cyanobacteria. [Photo]

fan gorgonian / Gorgonia sp.: [chemical, competition] 1. gorgonian competes chemically with a red encrusting sponge. [Photo]

fan gorgonian / Gorgonia sp.: [chemical, competition] 1. chemically competing for space with an encrusting octopus sponge Ectyoplasia ferox. [Photo]

fan gorgonian / Gorgonia sp.: [competition, disease, overgrowth] 1. bluegreen alga or bacteria are highly toxic overgrowth organisms on the reef. 2. affected organisms appear diseased. [Photo]

sea fan / Gorgonia sp.: [defense, size refuge, structure] 1. adult size is too big for most predators. [Photo]

sea fan / Gorgonia sp.: [defense, spicule, structure] 1. view of invertebrates that possess spicules. [Video]

sea fan / Gorgonia sp.: [video courtesy] 1. video courtesy Andy Stockbridge, Belize. Stockbridge [Video]

sea fan / Gorgonia sp.: [nutrition, photosynthesis, symbiont] 1. many gorgonian species have photosynthesising symbionts. [Video]

sea fan / Gorgonia sp.: [video courtesy] 1. video courtesy Andy Stockbridge, Belize. Stockbridge [Video]

sea fan / Gorgonia ventalina: [diversity] 1. examples of diversity of Caribbean gorgonians. [Photo]

fan gorgonian / Gorgonia ventalina: [disease] 1. infested with fungus disease Aspergillus sydowii in Akumal, Mexico. Bruno et al. 2003 [Photo]

common sea fan / Gorgonia ventalina: [predation] 1. description of it being fed on intensely by flamingo-tongue shells in Mona Island, Puerto Rico . Scharer & Nemeth 2010 [Photo]

fan gorgonian / Gorgonia vetalina: [ambush predator, camouflage, defense] 1. acting as backdrop camouflaging for a trumpetfish Aulostoma maculatus. [Photo]

fairy basslet / Gramma loreto: [behaviour, diet, habitat, plankton] 1. eat copepods, small shrimps, and other small crustaceans from the plankton (planktivorous). [Photo]

fairy basslet / Gramma loreto: [colour, creation, structure] 1. how purple and yellow colours in fishes are created. [Photo, Video]

fairy basslets / Gramma  loreto: [conservation, invasive, predation] 1. field experiments show that predation from lionfishes when added to that from native predatory fishes can tip the balance of survival of fairy basslets to extinction. Ingeman 2016 [Photo]

fairy basslet / Gramma  loreto: [conservation, invasive, predation] 1. laboratory experiments comparing different levels of predation from lionfishes and graysby groupers on survival of fairy basslets Gramma loreto and blackcap basslets G. melacara. Kindinger & Anderson 2016 [Photo]

blackcap basslet / Gramma  melacara: [conservation, invasive, predation] 1. laboratory experiments comparing different levels of predation from lionfishes and graysby groupers on survival of fairy basslets Gramma loreto and blackcap basslets G. melacara. Kindinger & Anderson 2016 [Photo]

blackcap basslet / Gramma  melacara: [photo courtesy] 1. photograph courtesy Wolfram Sander. Sander [Photo]

sally lightfoot / Grapsus grapsus: [bite, defense] 1. hard-biting and fast, lives on wave-exposed rocks. [Photo]

yellow margin moray / Gymnothorax flavimarginatus: [behaviour, cleaner, colour, function] 1. colorful Indo-Pacific cleaner shrimp tends to a moray eel. Cheney et al. 2008 [Photo]

green moray / Gymnothorax funebris: [bite, danger] 1. morays have raggedy teeth and a habit of rolling their body while biting. [Video]

green moray / Gymnothorax funebris: [danger, poison, ciguatera] 1. one example of many large predators whose flesh may be toxic owing to sequestration of ciguatera toxins obtained from their prey fishes. [Photo]

moray / Gymnothorax funebris: [defense, hide] 1. morays tend to hide out in crevices during daytime. [Video]

moray / Gymnothorax funebris: [video courtesy] 1. video courtesy Andy Stockbridge, Belize. Stockbridge [Video]

green moray / Gymnothorax funebris: [ambush predator, behaviour, nutrition, optimal foraging] 1. consideration of costs involved in different feeding modes. [Photo]

spotted moray / Gymnothorax moringa: [bite, danger] 1. video of potential danger if you poke around in crevices with your hands. [Video]

moray / Gymnothorax moringa: [defense, hide] 1. morays tend to hide in crevices during daylight. [Video]

green moray / Gymnothorax moringa: [ambush predator, behaviour, nutrition, optimal foraging] 1. consideration of costs involved in different feeding modes. [Photo]

spotted moray / Gymnothorax moringa: [behaviour, nutrition, predator, prey] 1. interesting interaction with a Nassau grouper Epinephelus striatus. [Video]

spotted moray / Gymnothorax moringa: [cleaning, client, symbiosis] 1. being cleaned by a banded coral shrimp Stenopus hispidus. [Photo]

moray eel / Gymnothorax sp.: [morphology, predator, quiz] 1. part of a quiz relating to facial morphology of predatory fishes. [Photo]

margate / Haemulon album: [coloration, induce confusion] 1. colour patterns of schooling prey fishes induce confusion in an attacking predator. [Photo]

tomtate / Haemulon aurolineatum: [diet, nutrition] 1. data for grunts suggest broad-spectrum diets depending upon area. 2. coexistence of different grunt species may be favoured by different food-resource partitioning. Alheit 1981 [Photo, Graph]

Caesar grunt / Haemulon carbonarium: [defense, sound] 1. hear the grunting sounds of Caesar grunts. [Photo]

Caesar grunt / Haemulon carbonarium: [defense, sound] 1. hear the grunting sounds of Caesar grunts in the presence of a predatory barracuda. [Photo]

French grunt / Haemulon flavolineatum: [coloration, communication, function, social] 1. coloration functions in schooling or shoaling?. [Photo]

French grunt / Haemulon flavolineatum: [diet, nutrition] 1. data for grunts suggest broad-spectrum diets depending upon area. 2. coexistence of different grunt species may be favoured by different food-resource partitioning. Alheit 1981 [Photo, Graph]

French grunt / Haemulon flavolineatum: [cartoon, cleaner, client] 1. a French grunt and neon goby discuss their cleaner/client relationship. Arnal & Cote 1998 [Drawing]

French grunt / Haemulon flavolineatum: [cleaning, client, parasitism] 1. best cleaned of parasitic isopods by Pederson cleaner shrimps Periclimenes pedersoni, but not by other cleaner shrimps or cleaner fishes. Bunkley-Williams & Williams 1998 [Photo, Drawing]

French grunt / Haemulon flavolineatum: [larva, planktivorous, predator] 1. these and other grunts feed from the plankton, eating larval invertebrates and fishes. [Photo]

French grunt / Haemulon flavolineatum: [juvenile, survival] 1. in St. Croix only about 1% survive to their first year of life. Shulman & Ogden 1987 [Photo, Graph]

French grunt / Haemulon flavolineatum: [competition, shoal, space] 1. individuals stake out areas within the shoal which they defend. [Photo]

white grunt / Haemulon plumieri: [marine protected area, predator] 1. as numbers of certain predators increase in marine protected areas, so their prey are subject to enhanced predation. Harborne et al. 2009 [Photo]

bluestriped grunt / Haemulon sciurus: [coloration] 1. introductory video for topic of coloration of reef organisms, including grunts and other reef fishes. [Video]

bluestriped grunt / Haemulon sciurus: [coloration, defense] 1. video noting how colour patterns in schooling fishes can confuse an attacking predator. [Video]

bluestriped grunt / Haemulon sciurus: [coloration, induce confusion] 1. colour patterns of schooling prey fishes induce confusion in an attacking predator. [Photo]

bluestriped grunt / Haemulon sciurus: [defense, survival] 1. advantages of shallow-water schooling seems to in its potential to confuse the predator. []

bluestriped grunt / Haemulon sciurus: [defense, shoal] 1. a contrastingly coloured surgeonfish Acanthurus sp. within the shoal would be a standout to any passing predator. [Photo]

bluestriped grunt / Haemulon sciurus: [diet, nutrition] 1. data for grunts suggest broad-spectrum diets depending upon area. 2. coexistence of different grunt species may be favoured by different food-resource partitioning. Alheit 1981 [Photo, Graph]

grunt / Haemulon spp.: [camouflage, coloration] 1. several species of grunts bear yellow colour markings that may be camouflaging from a distance. [Photo]

grunt / Haemulon spp.: [defense, heterospecific, shoal] 1. a dark object amongst bright ones is a visual standout to a predatory barracuda. [Photo, Drawing]

grunt / Haemulon spp.: [defense, shoal] 1. shoaling fishes present a confusing visual image to a predator. [Video]

grunt / Haemulon spp.: [juvenile, larva, life cycle, survival] 1. high risk of mortality during transition from larva to juvenile stage in grunts and all coral-reef fishes. [Video]

slippery dick / Halichoeres bivittatus: [cartoon, experiment, palatability] 1. cartoon series to test which of several species of brittle stars is more tasty to a bluehead wrasse. 2. comments by S.L.P. Dick, well known brittle-star investigator. [Drawing]

slippery dick / Halichoeres bivittatus: [aggregation, diet, nutrition] 1. diet includes at least 10 types of bottom-dwelling invertebrates. Randall 1967 [Drawing, Table of Data]

slippery dick / Halichoeres bivittatus: [diet, nutrition] 1. in the Florida Keys and Dry Tortugas diet comprises mainly arthropods and molluscs. [Photo, Graph]

slippery dick / Halichoeres bivittatus: [behaviour, mate, spawn] 1. details of sexual coloring, spawning, and so on. Warner & Robertson 1978 [Photo]

yellowhead wrasse / Halichoeres garnoti: [diet, nutrition] 1. include sea urchins, crabs, and snails in their diet. [Photo]

yellowhead wrasse / Halichoeres garnoti: [behaviour, life cycle, mate] 1. description of mating, sex change, and other life-cycle details. Warner & Robertson 1978 [Photo]

yellowhead wrasse / Halichoeres garnoti: [carnivory, tool use] 1. description of tool use by a shellfish-eating predatory fish. 2. the predator smashes its bivalve prey against a rock anvil. Coyer 1995 [Photo]

clown wrasse / Halichoeres maculipinna: [predation, school] 1. a predator may not be attacking an individual in a school so much as attacking to isolate an individual prey for better success. []

clown wrasse / Halichoeres maculipinna: [behaviour, mate, spawn] 1. details of sexual coloring, spawning, and so on. Warner & Robertson 1978 [Photo]

clown wrasse / Halichoeres maculipinna: [photo courtesy] 1. photograph courtesy Carlos & Allison Estape, Islamorada, Florida. Estape [Photo]

social wrasse / Halichoeres socialis: [predation, endemic] 1. endemic to inner Barrier reef in Belize and is being killed off by invasive lionfishes Pterois spp.. Rocha et al. 2015 [Photo]

pancake batfish / Halieutichthys aculeatus: [ambush predator, lure, nutrition, video courtesy] 1. account of feeding habits. [Photo]

pancake batfish / Halieutichthys aculeatus: [photo courtesy] 1. photograph courtesy Anne Dupont, Florida. Dupont [Photo]

coralline alga / Halimeda sp.: [diversity] 1. example of bleaching from light exposure. [Photo]

halimeda / Halimeda sp.: [calcification, defense, toxicity] 1. an alga with both chemical and physical defenses against herbivores. [Video]

halimeda / Halimeda sp.: [calcification, defense, protection, structure] 1. strong holdfast provides protection against storms and herbivores. 2. holdfast structure varies with type of habiatat. Multer & Voltava 1992 [Drawing]

halimeda / Halimeda sp.: [calcification, defense, structure] 1. heavily calcified structure contributes to white-sand beaches on death of the alga. [Drawing]

green seaweed / Halimeda sp.: [chemical, defense, toxicity, terpenes] 1. extracts of terpenoid chemicals have antibiotic properties and are also toxic to larvae of sea urchins that consume this alga. Paul 1985 [Photo]

green alga / Halimeda sp.: [competition, colonise] 1. appears to be colonising a brain coral Diploria strigosa. Wolf & Nugues 2013 [Photo]

green alga / Halimeda sp.: [diet, experiment, nutritional value, preference] 1. fifth most preferred algal food for bucktooth parrotfishes in St. Croix. [Photo, Drawing]

halimeda / Halimeda spp.: [edibility, structure] 1. ranked 5th "most herbivore-edible" of 6 Caribbean algal species . 2. calcified, jointed segments. [Photo]

green alga / Halimeda spp.: [defense, growth] 1. new growth occurs at night when herbivorous fishes are resting. [Video]

green alga / Halimeda spp.: [chemical, defense, growth, toxic] 1. new growth occurs at night when herbivorous fishes are resting. 2. toxic chemicals in tissues probably better defense than calcification. Hay et al. 1988 [Photo]

green seaweed / Halimeda spp.: [chemical, defense, structure, toxic, secondary metabolite] 1. species are doubly protected, with calcareous structure and toxic chemicals. 2. terpenoids are commonly present. []

green seaweed / Halimeda spp.: [chemical, defense, quiz, toxic, hypothesis-testing] 1. quiz relating to why some sea urchins readily eat this alga, while most reef fishes do not. 2. development of hypotheses, and merits of testing same. Paul & van Alstyne 1988 [Photo]

green alga / Halimeda spp.: [detritus, feeding] 1. bits eaten by sand dollars Mellita sexiesperforata pass through their guts and contribute to white-sand beaches. Kampfer 1995 [Photo]

red abalone / Haliotis  rufescens: [colour, structural, shell] 1. shell colours created by diffraction of light. [Photo]

red abalone / Haliotis  rufescens: [colour, diffraction, nacre, shell] 1. iridescence is created by different angles of light diffraction. [Photo]

Christmas tree hydroid / Halocordyle disticha: [coloration, function, toxicity, warning] 1. colours warn of toxicity to ward off predators. [Photo]

nematocyst / Halocordyle disticha: [defense, mechanism] 1. description of formation and mechanism of discharge of a nematocyst. [Photo, Drawing]

Christmas tree hydroid / Halocordyle disticha: [defense, nematocyst, toxicity] 1. highly toxic nematocysts. [Photo]

Christmas tree hydroid / Halocordyle disticha: [diet, nutrition] 1. primarily eat zooplankton. [Photo]

wrasse blenny / Hemiemblemaria simulus: [aggression, behaviour, camouflage, mimicry] 1. possible example of aggressive mimicry. 2. wrasse blennies mimic cleaning behaviour and coloration of initial-stage bluehead wrasses in order to take bites from their "client" fishes. Randall & Randall 1960 [Photo]

wrasse blenny / Hemiemblemaria simulus: [aggression, mimicry, social] 1. discussion of whether the similarity between wrasse blennies and initial-stage bluehead wrasses Thalassoma bifasciatum is really an example of aggressive mimicry. 2. alternatively, it could be an example of social mimicry. [Photo]

razorfish / Hemipteronotus martinicensis: [behaviour, defense, escape] 1. dive head-first into sand when approached. [Video]

rosy razorfish / Hemipteronotus martinicensis: [burrow, defense] 1. these hard-headed fishes still prefer areas of soft sand to dive into. [Photo]

rosy razorfish / Hemipteronotus martinicensis: [behaviour, feeding, nutrition, swimming] 1. swims and catches a prey copepod from the plankton. [Video]

pyramid butterflyfish / Hemitaurichthys polylepis: [coloration, defense, mimicry] 1. have common colour patterns of butterflyfishes the world over evolved to advertise unpalatibility?. 2. known as Mullerian mimicry. [Photo]

pyramid butterflyfish / Hemitaurichthys polylepis: [coloration, defense, function, mimicry] 1. idea that potential prey fishes with their own defenses may evolve a similar colour pattern to present a common "don't eat me" message to predators. 2. Mullerian mimicry. Neudecker 1989 [Photo]

bearded fire worm / Hermodice carunculata: [diversity] 1. example of diversity of Caribbean worms. [Video]

bearded fire worm / Hermodice carunculata: [danger, poison, spine] 1. demonstration of how bristly a bristle worm can be. [Photo]

bearded fire worm / Hermodice carunculata: [spine, treatment] 1. suggested treatment when pierced by bristle worm spines. [Text only]

bearded fire worm / Hermodice carunculata: [mucus, protection] 1. mucus is produced during an aggressive encounter of a mound coral Montastrea sp. with the worm. [Photo]

bearded fire worm / Hermodice carunculata: [acontia, defense, nematocyst] 1. being fended off by polyps of a mound coral Montastrea sp. that are extruding defensive mesenterial filaments through their body walls . [Photo]

bearded fire worm / Hermodice carunculata: [chemical, defense, toxic] 1. shows quick erection of toxic bristles. [Video]

bearded fire worm / Hermodice carunculata: [behaviour, chemical, defense, feeding] 1. photographs showing various behaviours, including bristle erection and feeding. [Photo]

bearded fire worm / Hermodice carunculata: [behaviour, defense, ink] 1. tests of sea-hare Aplysia dactylomela ink on its behaviour. 2. erects bristles and writhes about. Carefoot & Pennings 1999 [Photo]

bearded fire worm / Hermodice carunculata: [diet, nutrition] 1. eats fire corals and gorgonians. Lewis & Crooks 1996 [Photo]

bearded fire worm / Hermodice carunculata: [carnivory, diet, nutrition, predator] 1. diet is mostly gorgonians, but also includes zoanthids, sea anemones, and hydroids. Marsden 1962 [Photo]

bearded fire worm / Hermodice carunculata: [carnivory, diet, nutrition, predator] 1. diet is mostly gorgonians, but also includes zoanthids, sea anemones, and hydroids. Marsden 1962 [Photo]

bearded fire worm / Hermodice carunculata: [diet, nutrition, nutritional value, predator] 1. in Puerto Rico prefers the gorgonian Briareum asbestinum over other species. Vreeland & Lasker 1989 [Photo]

bearded fire worm / Hermodice carunculata: [food, nutrition, preference] 1. cartoon strip showing a fireworm interviewing a bristleworm about its feeding habits. [Drawing]

bearded fire worm / Hermodice carunculata: [diet, nutrition, preference] 1. in Barbados prefers to eat zoanthids Palythoa mammillosa and finger corals Porites spp.. Ott & Lewis 1972 [Photo]

bearded fire worm / Hermodice carunculata: [diet, nutrition, predator] 1. in Curacao diet consists of orange cup-corals Tubastrea coccinea and brain corals Diploria sp.. Wolf & Nugues 2013 [Photo]

bearded fire worm / Hermodice carunculata: [photo courtesy] 1. photograph courtesy Alexander Wolf, Bremen, Germany and the University of Bremen. Wolf 2012 [Photo]

bearded fire worm / Hermodice carunculata: [diet, nutrition] 1. in St. John, Virgin Islands fire worms readily eat fire corals Millepora complanata. Witman 1988 [Photo]

bristleworm / Hermodice carunculata: [predator] 1. in areas of Glover's Reef, Belize commonly prey upon carpet anemones Sticodactyla helianthus. Lizama & Blanquet 1975 [Photo]

bristleworm / Hermodice carunculata: [behaviour, feeding, predator] 1. in Barbados feed on fire coral Millepora complanata mostly in the afternoon. Lewis & Crooks 1996 [Graph]

fire worm / Hermodice carunculata: [diet, morphology] 1. confirms that diet includes living corals. 2. brief description of gut morphology. Marsden 1963 [Photo, Drawing]

fireworm / Hermodice carunculata: [predation] 1. in experiments in Curacao on predation on coral spat, only small fireworms eat the spat, not large. Wolf & Nugues 2013 [Photo]

garden eel / Heteroconger longissimus: [defense, hide, burrow] 1. dig burrows with their tails and line them probably with mucus secretion. Schepper et al. 2007 [Photo]

garden eel / Heteroconger longissimus: [burrow, reproduction, location] 1. in Little Cayman Island, where this photo was taken, burrows appear to be unpaired; not so in Bermuda, the site of the study. Tyler & Luckhurst 1994 [Photo]

kelp greenling / Hexagrammos decagrammus: [parasitism] 1. an individual infested with parasitic copopods. [Photo]

lined seahorse / Hippocampus erectus: [camouflage] 1. these 2 photos underscore the necessity for good eye camouflaging to be well camouflaged. [Photo]

lined seahorse / Hippocampus erectus: [photo courtesy] 1. photographs courtesy Anne Dupont, Florida. Dupont [Photo]

flyingfish / Hirundichthys speculiger: [behaviour, escape, locomotion] 1. statistics on flying ability. Davenport 1990 [Drawing]

sargassumfish / Histrio histrio: [camouflage, mimicry] 1. in shape, form, and colour a sargassumfish is a master mimic of a habitat of sargassum weed. [Photo]

sargassumfish / Histrio histrio: [ambush predator, camouflage] 1. well camouflaged against brown seaweeds . [Photo]

sargassumfish / Histrio histrio: [ambush predator, behaviour, nutrition] 1. video showing it gulping down a small perch. [Video]

sargassumfish / Histrio histrio: [ambush predator, camouflage, defense] 1. being in a mangrove-root habitat is unusual for a sargassumfish. Rogers et al. 2010 [Photo]

queen angelfish / Holacanthus ciliaris: [diet, omnivore] 1. diet consists of bottom-dwelling organisms such as sponges, tunicates, hydroids, and even algae. [Photo]

queen angelfish / Holacanthus ciliaris: [camouflage, coloration] 1. photo simulation of how yellow colorations may camouflage at a distance. [Photo]

queen angelfish / Holacanthus ciliaris: [coloration, eye, function] 1. bright eye colours may be transmitting intraspecific messages. Thresher 1977 [Photo]

queen angelfish / Holacanthus ciliaris: [communication, function, perception, ultraviolet, vision] 1. differential abilities of reef fishes to perceive UV wavelengths may provide for an special type of clandestine communication between prey. Losey et al. 2003 [Photo]

queen angelfish / Holacanthus ciliaris: [colour, communication, function, social] 1. colour serves a social function?. [Photo]

queen angelfish / Holacanthus ciliaris: [coloration, eye, function] 1. eye coloration may function as recognition cue within the species. [Photo]

queen angelfish / Holacanthus ciliaris: [colour, creation, structural] 1. video comments on how blue colours in fishes are created. [Video]

queen angelfish / Holacanthus ciliaris: [colour, creation, structural] 1. how blue colour in fishes is created. [Photo, Video]

queen angelfish / Holacanthus ciliaris: [coloration, toxicity, warning] 1. if colours advertise toxicity, we should know something of what predators there might be. [Video]

queen angelfish / Holacanthus ciliaris: [video courtesy] 1. video courtesy Andy Stockbridge, Belize. Stockbridge [Video]

queen angelfish / Holacanthus ciliaris: [sound] 1. example of sounds emitted from this species. [Photo]

queen angelfish / Holacanthus ciliaris: [diet, nutrition, predator] 1. eat mainly sponges, with leathery barrel sponges Geodia neptuni being favoured. [Photo]

queen angelfish / Holacanthus ciliaris: [cleaning, client, symbiosis] 1. being cleaned by a juvenile bluehead wrasse Thalassoma bifasciatum. [Photo]

queen angelfish / Holacanthus ciliaris: [survival] 1. introduction to the topic of survival during early life of reef organisms. [Video]

queen angelfish / Holacanthus ciliaris: [video courtesy] 1. video courtesy Andy Stockbridge, Belize. Stockbridge [Video]

rock beauty / Holacanthus tricolor: [coloration, function, mimicry, morphology] 1. discussion of adaptive coloration; specifically, presence of eyespots in one life stage but not the other. [Photo]

rock beauty / Holacanthus tricolor: [diet, nutrition] 1. dedicated sponge-eater, but may eat a bit of algae. Hourigan et al. 1989 [Photo]

rock beauty / Holacanthus tricolor: [diet, nutrition] 1. mainly eats sponges, but algae may also be included in the diet. Hourigan et al. 1989 [Photo]

rock beauty / Holacanthus tricolor: [photo courtesy] 1. photograph courtesy Anne Dupont, Florida. Dupont [Photo]

rock beauty / Holacanthus tricolor: [diet, jaw, nutrition, quiz] 1. quiz on mouth morphology in relation to diet in angelfishes. 2. a rock-beauty's jaws are more symmetrical than those in sponge-eating species, reflecting its greater diet of algae. Hourigan et al. 1989 [Photo, Drawing]

squirrelfish / Holocentrus  adscensionis: [camouflage, coloration] 1. bright red coloration may be camouflaging even in daytime. [Photo]

squirrelfish / Holocentrus  adscensionis: [defense, spine] 1. erectable dorsal spines may make it difficult or impossible for a predator to swallow its prey. [Photo]

squirrelfish / Holocentrus  adscensionis: [larva, reproduction] 1. larva bears resemblance to adult. Ontogeny & systematics of fishes vol. 1 1984 [Photo, Drawing]

longspine squirrelfish / Holocentrus  rufus: [camouflage, coloration] 1. red coloration may be camouflaging even in daytime. [Photo]

longspine squirrelfish / Holocentrus  rufus: [defense, hide] 1. hide away during daytime and hunt at night. []

squirrelfish / Holocentrus  adscensionis: [sound] 1. example of sounds emitted from this species. [Photo]

squirrelfish / Holocentrus  bullisi: [carotenoid, chromatophore, pigment] 1. black colours in fishes are from melanin pigments in chromatophores or in skin deposits. 2. red colours of squirrelfishes from carotenoid pigments in their crustacean prey. [Photo]

squirrelfish / Holocentrus  rufus: [habitat] 1. behaviour is to hide away during the day and emerge at night. [Photo]

donkey dung sea cucumber / Holothuria mexicana: [diversity] 1. example of diversity of Caribbean echinoderms. [Photo]

donkey dung sea cucumber / Holothuria mexicana: [defense, structure] 1. thick, leathery skin for protection against predators. [Photo]

donkey dung sea cucumber / Holothuria mexicana: [defense, toxic] 1. the skin and internal organs of many sea cucumbers has toxins that may be useful in defense. [Video]

donkey dung sea cucumber / Holothuria mexicana: [detritus, diet, nutrition, bioturbation] 1. non-stop feeding on sediments contributes to bioturbation, or disturbance of sediments. Scheibling 1982 [Photo]

donkey dung sea cucumber / Holothuria mexicana: [cartoon, detritus, nutritional value] 1. father and son discuss the merits of different piles of feces as food. [Photo]

donkey dung sea cucumber / Holothuria mexicana: [larva, reproduction] 1. has an auricularia larva. [Photo, Drawing]

night feeding sea cucumber / Holothuria thomasi: [diversity] 1. example of diversity of Caribbean echinoderms. [Photo]

tiger tail sea cucumber / Holothuria thomasi: [behaviour, defense, nocturnal] 1. nocturnal activity may help avoid contact with predators. [Photo]

tiger tail sea cucumber / Holothuria thomasi: [defense, structure] 1. sea cucumbers have tough, leathery skin for defense. [Video]

tiger tail sea cucumber / Holothuria thomasi: [defense, structure] 1. sea cucumbers have tough, leathery skin for defense; this species is especially stretchy, however. [Video]

indigo hamlet / Hypoplectrus indigo: [coloration, eyebar] 1. idea that eye-bars on predatory fishes may act both to confuse their own predators and to disguise them from their prey. [Photo]

indigo hamlet / Hypoplectrus indigo: [protection, ultraviolet] 1. are UV wavelengths ever harmful to reef fishes?. [Video]

indigo hamlet / Hypoplectrus indigo: [video courtesy] 1. video courtesy Andy Stockbridge, Belize. Stockbridge [Video]

indigo hamlet / Hypoplectrus indigo: [allometry, behaviour, competition, hermaphrodite, mate, sexual] 1. males compete for mates, but complicated by abrupt alternation of sexes. 2. simultaneous hermaphrodites. DeLoach 1999 [Photo]

hamlet / Hypoplectrus spp.: [behaviour, hermaphrodite, sexual] 1. information on egg- and sperm-trading between mates. Fischer 1987 [Photo]

butter hamlet / Hypoplectrus unicolor: [coloration, function] 1. bright colours on the eye may function to convey intraspecific signals. Thresher 1977 [Photo]

sea fan / Iciligorgia schrammi: [predation] 1. description of it being fed on intensely by flamingo-tongue shells in Mona Island, Puerto Rico . Scharer & Nemeth 2010 [Photo]

stinker sponge / Ircinia felix: [chemical, communication] 1. tests on sponge pairs Ircinia felix with brown tube-sponge Ageles conifera to determine if sponges growing in close association pass chemicals to the other. 2. they don't. Schaft & Mebs 2002 [Photo]

mangrove oyster / Isognomon alatus: [diversity] 1. found on roots of mangrove trees. [Photo]

three rowed sea cucumber / Isostichopus badionotus: [behaviour, detritus, diet, nutrition, bioturbation] 1. aspects of feeding and daily movements. Hammond 1982 [Photo]

three rowed sea cucumber / Isostichopus badionotus: [diet, feces, nutritional value] 1. feces may be richer in organics than the surrounding sediments, and may be eaten by other detritivores. [Photo]

bubble raft snail / Janthina janthina: [diet, nutrition, predator] 1. eat chondrophores Porpita porpita. [Photo]

spiny lobster / Justitia longimanus: [chromatophore, hormone] 1. chromatophore colour change in crustaceans is mediated by both nervous and hormonal means. [Photo]

red banded lobster / Justitia longimanus: [camouflage, coloration, defense] 1. this bright-red species is generally nocturnal, and its red colours would appear black at night. [Photo]

red banded lobster / Justitia longimanus: [cartoon] 1. cartoon series explaining possible function of red colours in camouflage defense. [Drawing]

red banded lobster / Justitia longimanus: [diversity] 1. an example of diversity of Caribbean crustaceans. [Photo]

spiny lobster / Justitia longimanus: [chromatophore, coloration, pigment] 1. colours derive from chromatophores in the skin and red carotene pigments in the exoskeleton. [Photo]

blue streak cleaner wrasse / Labroides dimidiatus: [behaviour, cleaner] 1. does a "tactile dance" when dealing with aggressive coral-trout client fishes. 2. the dance may reduce aggressive behaviour in the client fish. Grutter 2004 [Photo]

hogfish / Lachnolaimus maximus: [aggression, coloration, mimicry] 1. photograph showing a hogfish escorting a trumpetfish Aulostomus maculatus across the reef. 2. possible example of aggressive mimicry. [Photo]

hogfish / Lachnolaimus maximus: [coloration, defense, function, eyebar] 1. potential defensive value of eye-bars. [Photo]

hogfish / Lachnolaimus maximus: [diet, nutrition, predator] 1. include brittle stars in their diet, even though these prey are probably not very nutritious. [Photo]

hogfish / Lachnolaimus maximus: [diet, nutrition] 1. diet consists mainly of molluscs and crustaceans, in that order. Wainwright 1987 [Photo]

hogfish / Lachnolaimus maximus: [diet, jaw, nutrition, quiz] 1. size-selection for favoured snail prey Cerithium litteratum is surprisingly small. Wainwright 1987 [Photo]

hogfish / Lachnolaimus maximus: [diet, nutrition] 1. in the Florida Keys and Dry Tortugas diet comprises mainly crabs and scallops. [Photo, Graph]

honeycomb cowfish / Lactophrys polygonia: [defense, spine] 1. boxey shape and forward-projecting spines may create difficulty for a predator swallowing its prey. [Photo]

honeycomb cowfish / Lactophrys polygonia: [defense, poison, tetrodotoxin] 1. example of several species of reef fishes with toxic flesh. 2. tetrodotoxin. [Photo]

honeycomb cowfish / Lactophrys polygonia: [morphology] 1. hard-to-eat body morphology. [Video]

honeycomb cowfish / Lactophrys polygonia: [diet, nutrition] 1. uses pointy mouth to probe into crevices for prey. [Video]

scrawled cowfish / Lactophrys quadricornis: [defense, morphology] 1. hard-to-eat body morphology. [Photo]

smooth trunkfish / Lactophrys triqueter: [defense, morphology] 1. hard-to-eat body morphology. [Photo]

red alga / Laurencia papillosa: [nutrition, photosynthesis, pigment] 1. reliance on blue wavelengths for photosynthesis means that red algae can grow in deeper waters than green algae. [Photo]

red seaweed / Laurencia spp.: [chemical, defense, secondary metabolite] 1. species in the genus collectively have hundreds of different secondary metabolites, many of which may be toxic. 2. terpenoids are commonly present. []

nudibranch / Learchis evelinae: [defense, nematocyst] 1. details of route taken by consumed nematocysts through the gut to the dorsal cerata. [Photo]

nudibranch / Learchis evelinae: [photo courtesy] 1. photograph courtesy Anne Dupont, Florida. [Photo]

Christmas tree nudibranch / Learchis  poica: [coloration, reproduction, hermaphrodite] 1. coloration is not related to any sort of mating display. [Photo]

Christmas tree nudibranch / Learchis  poica: [photo courtesy] 1. photograph courtesy Anne Dupont, Florida. Dupont [Photo]

sea anemone / Lebrunia coralligens: [defense, nematocyst, toxicity] 1. nematocysts thought to be quite toxic to humans. [Photo]

hidden anemone / Lebrunia coralligens: [mutualism, symbiont] 1. sometimes host snapping shrimps, such as Alpheus armatus, who live within the protective tentacles . Smith 1977 [Photo]

anemone / Lebrunia danae: [diversity] 1. an example of an hydrozoan relative of Caribbean stony corals. [Photo]

sea anemone / Lebrunia danae: [behaviour, defense] 1. its protective tentacles act to shelter cleaner shrimps Periclemenes pedersoni. [Photo]

sea anemone / Lebrunia danae: [commensal, mutualism, symbiosis] 1. in areas around Grand Bahama Island, hosts several crustacean commensals/mutuals includ cleaner shrimps Periclimenes spp. and arrow crabs Stenorhychus seticornis. Herrnkind et al. 1976 [Photo]

sea anemone / Lebrunia danae: [photo courtesy] 1. photograph courtesy Dominique Marion and Dominique Sena, France. Marion & Sena [Photo]

goose barnacle / Lepas anatifera: [pollution] 1. although many types of discarded junk are biologically innocuous, their presence on Caribbean beaches reflects a general lack of environmental awareness. [Photo]

goose barnacle / Lepas anatifera: [larva, reproduction] 1. has a larva known as a nauplius. [Photo]

goose barnacle / Lepas sp.: [pollution] 1. colonisation of older tar-blobs shows that effects of oil pollution are often transient. [Photo]

olive Ridley turtle / Lepidochelys olivacea: [reproduction] 1. egg-laying on a sandy beach. [Photo]

olive Ridley turtle / Lepidochelys olivacea: [photo courtesy] 1. photograph courtesy Jeff Seminoff. Seminoff [Photo]

olive Ridley turtle / Lepidochelys ollivacea: [diversity] 1. example of diversity of Caribbean turtles. [Photo]

goose barnacle / Lepus anserifera: [diversity] 1. an example of diversity of Caribbean crustaceans. [Photo]

goose barnacle / Lepus anserifera: [diversity] 1. an example of diversity of Caribbean crustaceans. [Photo]

file clam / Lima scabra: [diversity] 1. example of diversity of Caribbean molluscs. [Photo]

file clam / Lima  scabra: [diversity] 1. example of diversity of Caribbean molluscs. [Photo]

comet sea star / Linckia guildingii: [diversity] 1. example of the diversity of Caribbean echinoderms. [Photo]

comet sea star / Linckia guildingii: [coloration, function, warning] 1. a species with different colour morphs is not likely to be toxic; hence, colours are likely not warning. [Photo]

comet sea star / Linckia guildingii: [diet, nutrition] 1. diet includes soft tissues of corals. [Photo]

comet sea star / Linckia guildingii: [asexual, recruitment, reproduction] 1. description of asexual reproduction in this species. [Photo]

comet sea star / Linckia guildingii: [reproduction] 1. reproduces both sexually and asexually. [Photo]

comet sea star / Linckia guildingii: [photo courtesy] 1. photograph courtesy Anne Dupont, Florida. Dupont [Photo]

comet sea star / Linckia sp.: [fertilisation, larva, spawn] 1. fertilisation leads to a feeding larva, bipinnaria, then to a nonfeeding settlement larva, the brachiolaria. [Photo, Drawing]

brown alga / Lobophora variegata: [description, growth, nutrition, photosynthesis] 1. rely on blue-green wavelengths of light for photosynthesis, reflecting a wide portion of green/yellow/red wavelengths making them appear brown to our eyes. [Graph]

reef squid / Loligo opalescens: [] 1. uses jet propulsion for fast backwards swimming. [Photo]

reef squid / Loligo opalescens: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy George Lilly, Newfoundland. Lilly [Photo]

reef squid / Loligo sp.: [chromatophore] 1. colour changes owe to chromatophore activity. [Photo]

reef squid / Loligo sp.: [defense, escape, jet-propulsion] 1. . Lilly [Drawing]

gray cowrie / Luria cinerea: [predator] 1. predator on several types of Caribbean tube sponges. Pawlik & Deignan 2015 [Photo]

mutton snapper / Lutjanus analis: [diet] 1. description of prey eaten by populations in Columbia. Duarte & Garcia 1999 [Photo, Graph]

mutton snapper / Lutjanus analis: [photo courtesy] 1. photograph courtesy Sammy's Seafood. Sammy's Seafood [Photo]

mutton snapper / Lutjanus analis: [aggregation, predation, spawn] 1. spawning aggregations attract roving piscivores such as bull sharks Carcharhinus leucas and bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus. Graham & Castellanos 2012 [Photo]

schoolmaster / Lutjanus apodus: [defense, survival] 1. comments about life's challenges for various fishes. [Video]

schoolmaster / Lutjanus apodus: [school] 1. schoolmasters schooling over the reef. [Video]

schoolmaster / Lutjanus apodus: [defense, shoal] 1. both shoaling and schooling enhance the collective vigilance of fishes. [Photo]

schoolmaster / Lutjanus apodus: [defense, shoal] 1. predator has more difficulty in selecting a suitable prey fish from a shoal or school. [Video]

schoolmaster / Lutjanus apodus: [video courtesy] 1. video courtesy Andy Stockbridge, Belize. Stockbridge []

schoolmaster / Lutjanus apodus: [school, sensory] 1. a new recruit to a school asks one of the older school-members for advice on how to behave to its best advantag. Pitcher et al. 1976 [Drawing]

schoolmaster / Lutjanus apodus: [defense, hide] 1. view of fish hiding out in a shady area. [Video]

schoolmaster / Lutjanus apodus: [hide] 1. strategy of hiding in the shade when a predator is bathed in sunlight. [Photo]

schoolmaster / Lutjanus apodus: [diet, function, morphology, mouth] 1. comparison of functional morphology of mouths of different fish species in relation to diet. [Photo, Drawing]

schoolmaster / Lutjanus apodus: [nutrition, predation] 1. this fish has evident wounds. [Video]

schoolmaster / Lutjanus apodus: [recruitment, reproduction, sexual] 1. one individual in a shoal releases sperm. [Video]

schoolmaster / Lutjanus apodus: [video courtesy] 1. video courtesy Andy Stockbridge, Belize. Stockbridge []

red snapper / Lutjanus campechanus: [morphology, predator] 1. answer to quiz dealing with topic of common features of a predatory fish. Karplus & Algam 1981 [Photo]

red snapper / Lutjanus campechanus: [parasitism] 1. this specimen has a parasitic isopod Cymotha exigua replacing its own tongue. [Photo]

mahogany snapper / Lutjanus mahogoni: [] 1. daytime view of crevice inhabitants. [Video]

dog snapper / Lutjanus sp.: [diet, nutrition, predator] 1. eat squids and octopuses, as well as fishes. [Photo]

blue green alga / Lyngbya  confervoides: [competition, overgrowth] 1. aspects of overgrowth of corals and seaweeds by blue-green algae. Ritson-Williams et al. 2005 [Photo]

yellow pencil coral / Madracis mirabilis: [feeding, mucus, suspension-feeding] 1. one dietary mode includes using mucus-net feeding. 2. diet by this mode is primarily bacteria and detritus. Bak et al. 1998 [Photo]

pencil coral / Madracis sp.: [competition, space] 1. coral knobs maintain distince "stand-off" distance from a barrel sponge Xestospongia muta. [Photo]

saddled blenny / Malacoctenus triangulatus: [habitat] 1. often perch within sponges. [Photo]

sand tilefish / Malancanthus plumieri: [behaviour, competition, harem, life cycle] 1. information on harem size and burrow territoriality. Baird & Liley 1989 [Photo]

sand tilefish / Malancanthus plumieri: [burrow, competition, harem, territory] 1. competition for burrow space. Baird & Liley 1989 [Photo]

sand tilefish / Malancanthus plumieri: [photo courtesy] 1. photograph courtesy Colin 1973 Copeia (1): 84. Colin [Photo]

black durgon triggerfish / Melichthys niger: [diet, feces, nutrition, coprophagy] 1. include fish feces in diet. [Photo]

sand dollar / Mellita sexiesperforata: [detritus, feeding] 1. feed on bits of green algae Halimeda spp. and contribute to white-sand beaches of the tropics. Kampfer 1995 [Photo]

wrasse blenny / Memiemblemaria simulus: [photo courtesy] 1. photograph courtesy J. Adams & D. Robertson. Adams & Robertson [Photo]

heart urchin / Meoma ventricosa: [detritus, diet, nutrition, bioturbation] 1. feeding on sediments contributes to bioturbation, or disturbance of sediments. Scheibling 1982 [Photo]

heart urchin / Meoma ventricosa: [competition, food] 1. in St. Croix may compete with cushion stars Oreaster reticulatus for detrital foods. Scheibling 1982 [Photo, Graph]

heart urchin / Meoma ventricosa: [behaviour, parasitism, symbiont, commensal] 1. with a pea crab Dissodactylus primitivus crawling over its spines . 2. is the crab a commensal or parasite?. [Photo]

heart urchin / Meoma ventricosus: [nutrition, predation] 1. preyed upon by stingrays, eagle rays, and other fishes that dig in the sand. [Photo]

heart urchin / Meoma  ventricosa: [commensal, symbiosis] 1. commonly host commensal crabs Dissodactylus primitivius. [Photo]

sea anemone / Metridium sp.: [aggression, defense, nematocyst] 1. potent stinging cells (nematocysts) are found on the tentacles of sea anemones and, for some species, also on special mesenterial filaments known as acontia. [Photo]

yellowtail damselfish / Microspathodon chrysurus: [coloration, function, toxicity, warning] 1. bright coloration probably does not function for warning of toxicity. [Video]

yellowtail damselfish / Microspathodon chrysurus: [cleaning, client, station, symbiosis] 1. do damselfish ever frequent cleaning stations?. [Video]

yellowtail damselfish / Microspathodon chrysurus: [larva, reproduction] 1. larva bears resemblance to adult. Ontogeny & systematics of fishes vol. 1 1984 [Photo, Drawing]

yellowtail damselfish / Microspathodon chrysurus: [juvenile, sensory, settlement] 1. review of sensory cues other than vision that might be important to settling larval fishes. Leis et al. 2003 [Photo]

yellowtail damselfish / Microspathodon chrysurus: [larva, predation] 1. by excluding potential predators of coral larvae, recruitment of corals to a damselfish's garden area may be enhanced. Sammarco & Carleton 1981 []

yellowtail damselfish / Microspathodon chrysurus: [aggression, behaviour, cartoon] 1. a yellowtail damselfish is innocent of bad behaviour to settling ocean surgeonfishes. [Drawing]

yellowtail damselfish / Microspathodon chrysurus: [behaviour, competition, space, territory] 1. nips an incursive juvenile stoplight parrotfish entering its garden territory. [Video]

yellowtail damselfish / Microspathodon chrysurus: [diversity, experiment, territory] 1. experiment to test effects of protection by a damselfish on algal diversity in its garden. Hixon & Brostoff 1983 [Photo, Drawing]

yellowtail damselfish / Microspathodon chrysurus: [aggression, competition, space, territory] 1. nips at a queen angelfish Scarus vetula as it passes through the damselfish's territory. [Video]

fire coral / Millepora : [pollution] 1. grows on a discarded beer bottle. [Photo]

fire coral / Millepora carunculata: [nutrition, predation] 1. in St. John, Virgin Islands are a favoured prey of bearded fireworms Hermodice carunculata. Witman 1988 [Photo]

fire coral / Millepora complanata: [predation] 1. on fringing reefs in Barbados, colonies are eaten by bristleworms Hermodice carunculata. Lewis & Crooks 1996 [Graph]

fire coral / Millepora complanata: [growth] 1. in Barbados colonies show distinctive growth lines indicative of age. Lewis 1991 [Photo, Drawing, Graph]

fire coral / Millepora sp.: [diversity] 1. an example of hydrozoan relatives of Caribbean stony corals. [Photo]

fire coral / Millepora sp.: [diversity] 1. video showing features of fire corals, including their stinging tentacles. [Video]

fire coral / Millepora sp.: [chemical, competition] 1. competes chemically and unsuccessfully with a chicken-liver sponge Chondrilla . [Photo]

fire coral / Millepora sp.: [chemical, competition, space] 1. does poorly in competition with a giant anemone Condylactis gigantea. [Video]

fire coral / Millepora sp.: [competition, overgrowth] 1. video showing views of overgrown gorgonians. [Video]

fire coral / Millepora sp.: [competition, overgrowth] 1. several photographs of fire coral overgrowing rock, coral, gorgonians, and even a beer bottle. [Photo]

fire coral / Millepora sp.: [competition, overgrowth] 1. fire coral overgrows a gorgonian with little or no resistance. [Photo]

fire coral / Millepora sp.: [growth] 1. growth is finger-like, reaching out towards its gorgonian hosts. Whale 1980 [Photo]

fire coral / Millepora sp.: [experiment, growth] 1. details of experiment to test effect of proximity of gorgonians on its growth form. Whale 1980 [Photo]

fire coral / Millepora sp.: [experiment, growth] 1. quiz on results of experiment to test effect of proximity of gorgonians on its growth form. Whale 1980 [Photo]

fire coral / Millepora sp.: [competition, overgrowth] 1. appears to be losing out to an overgrowing chicken-liver sponge Chondrilla nucula. Hill 1998 [Photo]

fire coral / Millepora sp.: [competition, overgrowth] 1. quiz on which of 6 species of Caribbean "overgrowers" is the most competitively dominant. [Photo]

fire coral / Millepora sp.: [chemical, defense, nematocyst, toxicity] 1. close view of defensive polyps. [Photo]

fire coral / Millepora sp.: [bleaching] 1. Caribbean-wide bleaching event 1987-1988. Williams & Bunkley-Williams 1988 [Photo]

fire coral / Millepora sp.: [symbiosis] 1. a quiz on what symbiotic relationships are evident in a photograph featuring a frond oyster, a sponge, a fire coral, and a sea-rod gorgonian. [Photo]

fire coral / Millepora sp.: [nematocyst, toxic] 1. fire corals on the reef. [Video]

fire coral / Millepora sp.: [description, nematocyst, toxic] 1. description of how the nematocysts or stinging cells operate. [Photo, Video]

fire coral / Millepora sp.: [host, symbiosis] 1. sometimes host hermit crabs amongst their branches. 2. commensalism or parasitism?. Brown & Edmunds 2013 [Photo]

fire coral / Millepora sp.: [competition, overgrowth] 1. overgrown by mat tunicates Trididemnum solidum to a greater degree at depth. Sommers et al. 2010 [Photo]

fire coral / Millepora spp.: [stinging cells] 1. video showing fire corals, dangerous to humans because of their stinging cells or nematocysts. [Video]

fire coral / Millepora spp.: [nematocyst, stinging cells] 1. explanation of the mechanism of operation of stinging cells (nematocysts) in fire coral and other cnidarians. [Photo, Drawing]

fire coral / Millepora spp.: [nematocyst, stinging cells] 1. explanation of the mechanism of operation of stinging cells (nematocysts) in fire coral and other cnidarians. [Photo, Drawing]

fire coral / Millepora spp.: [defense, nematocyst, toxicity, toxic] 1. nematocysts are highly toxic. [Photo]

banded clinging crab / Mithrax cinctimanus: [behaviour, defense, protection] 1. often seek out large sea anemones such as Condylactis gigantea for protection. [Photo]

banded clinging crab / Mithrax cinctimanus: [mutualism, symbiosis] 1. living within the tentacle protection of giant anemones Condylactis gigantea. [Photo]

banded clinging crab / Mithrax cinctimanus: [mutualism, symbiosis] 1. lives within the tentacle protection of giant anemones Condylactis gigantea. [Photo]

banded clinging crab / Mithrax cinctimanus: [habitat, symbiont] 1. often associate with giant sea anemones, but whether the relationship can properly be termed a symbiosis is not clear. [Photo]

channel clinging crab / Mithrax spinosissimus: [diversity] 1. an example of diversity of Caribbean crustaceans. [Photo]

channel clinging crab / Mithrax spinosissimus: [defense, structure, exoskeleton] 1. rely for defense on claws and heavy exoskeleton. [Photo]

channel clinging crab / Mithrax spinosissimus: [description, larva, reproduction] 1. developmental pattern is from egg, to nauplius larva, to zoea larva, to megalops settling stage. [Photo, Drawing]

slender filefish / Monacanthus tuckeri: [camouflage, defense] 1. video shows how good its camouflage is against a gorgonian background. [Video]

slender filefish / Monacanthus tuckeri: [video courtesy] 1. video courtesy Andy Stockbridge, Belize. Stockbridge [Video]

slender filefish / Monacanthus tuckeri: [camouflage, defense] 1. reticulated skin pattern, at least to the human eye, seems not well camouflaged against a fan gorgonian. [Photo]

slender filefish / Monacanthus tuckeri: [photo courtesy] 1. photograph courtesy Anne Dupont, Florida. Dupont [Photo]

mound coral / Monastrea annularis: [bleaching] 1. monitoring of coral bleaching and recovery. Fitt et al. 1993 [Photo]

boulder coral / Montastraea annularis: [diversity] 1. example of Caribbean stony corals. []

mound boulder coral / Montastraea annularis: [competition, overgrowth, disease] 1. algae overgrowing wound-spots on other organisms, such as this filamentous red alga, on a mound/boulder coral appear as a disease. [Photo]

boulder coral / Montastraea  annularis: [conservation, refuge, marine protected area] 1. more than a decade after its establishment, the second MPA in Belize is not performing as expected. Huntington et al. 2011 [Drawing]

mound coral / Montastraea  annularis: [stress, temperature] 1. less than 2d of cold stress caused extensive mortality to corals in the Florida Keys. Colella et al. 2012 [Photo]

mountainous star coral / Montastraea  faveolata: [reproduction, spawn] 1. spawn 7d after full moon in August in Mexico. 2. lunar synchronicity. Beaver et al. 2001 [Photo]

boulder coral / Montastraea  annularis: [bleaching, disease] 1. bleaching may lead to greater susceptibility to white-plague disease. Miller et al. 2006 [Photo]

boulder coral / Montastraea  annularis: [mortalilty] 1. recovery from 1980s population collapse may be favoured in shallow areas with large boulder or other corals. Jordan-Garza et al. 2008 [Photo]

boulder coral / Montastraea  annularis: [competition, overgrowth] 1. overgrown by mat tunicates Trididemnum solidum to a greater degree at depth. Sommers et al. 2010 [Photo]

mound coral / Montastraea  faveolata: [predation, spat] 1. in experiments in Curacao with fireworms Hermodice carunculata the spat are eaten only by small fireworms, not large. Wolf & Nugues 2013 [Photo]

boulder coral / Montastraea  faveolata: [bleaching, mesenterial filament, nutrition] 1. bleached corals may seek out nutrients via mesenterial filaments that are extended from the mouths of their polyps. Marhaver 2011 [Photo]

boulder coral / Montastraea  franksi: [photosynthesis, zooxanthellae] 1. deep reefs of the coasts of Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands. Armstrong 2007 [Photo]

mound coral / Montastraea  spp.: [conservation, survival] 1. discovery of a pristine reef in Cartegena Bay, Columbia, surprising given the poor overall state of reefs in this area. Lopez-Victoria et al. 2015 [Photo]

boulder coral / Montastrea : [carnivory, nutrition, predator] 1. comment on mechanism of prey capture by corals. [Video]

boulder coral / Montastrea : [carnivory, video courtesy] 1. video courtesy Andy Stockbridge, Belize. Stockbridge [Video]

boulder star coral / Montastrea annularis: [competition, space] 1. compete for habitat space with feather-duster worms Anamobaea orstedii. [Photo]

mound coral / Montastrea annularis: [diet, nutrition, predation] 1. in Barbados is a favoured prey of the coral-eating snail Coralliophila abbreviata. Ott & Lewis 1972 [Photo]

mound boulder coral / Montastrea annularis: [bleaching, description] 1. short description of bleaching process. [Photo]

boulder coral / Montastrea annularis: [light, nutrition, photosynthesis] 1. deep colonies use light more efficiently than shallow colonies. Dustan 1982 [Graph]

boulder coral / Montastrea annularis: [light, nutrition, photosynthesis] 1. deep colonies use light more efficiently than shallow colonies. Battey & Porter 1988 [Graph]

boulder coral / Montastrea annularis: [nutrition, quiz] 1. quiz on why deep colonies are more efficient at using light than shallow ones. [Text only]

boulder coral / Montastrea annularis: [experiment, nutrition, photosynthesis] 1. experiment involving translocating deep and shallow colonies to the other's habitat, then assessing performance. [Graph, Text only]

boulder coral / Montastrea cavernosa: [chemical, competition, overgrowth] 1. 3-way competition between this coral, a mat tunicate Trididemnum solidum, and boring sponges Siphonodictyon coralliphagum. [Photo]

mound boulder coral / Montastrea cavernosa: [diet, nutrition] 1. some dietary items shown. Porter 1974 [Photo]

mound coral / Montastrea cavernosa: [competition, overgrowth] 1. may be overgrown by blue-green algae. Ritson-Williams et al. 2005 [Photo]

mound coral / Montastrea cavernosa: [parasitism] 1. description of the parasite-like behaviour of snails Coralliophila caribaea that suck out the gastrovascular contents of polyps of mound corals . Martin et al. 2014 [Photo]

boulder coral / Montastrea sp.: [coloration] 1. comment on general drab coloration of the reef: most colours owe to fishes and sponges. [Video]

boulder coral / Montastrea sp.: [coloration] 1. colours of corals owe to pigments and to the presence of brown-coloured symbiotic plant cells. [Photo]

boulder coral / Montastrea sp.: [coloration] 1. explanation for colours of corals. [Photo, Drawing]

boulder coral / Montastrea sp.: [chemical, competition, polyp] 1. sequence showing back-and-forth battle of adjacent polyps of competing corals. Chornesky 1989 [Photo, Drawing]

boulder coral / Montastrea sp.: [chemical, competition, space] 1. competitively recessive against giant anemone Condylactis gigantea. [Photo]

mound coral / Montastrea sp.: [predation] 1. chewed off areas are caused by parrotfishes eating the coral polyps to gain the algal symbionts within. [Photo]

plate coral / Montastrea sp.: [chemical, competition, space] 1. colonies compete for light for photosynthesis of their symbionts. []

mound coral / Montastrea sp.: [competition, space] 1. some species of worms seem to be able to colonise a coral without the latter mounting a defensive chemical attack. [Photo]

boulder coral / Montastrea sp.: [competition, overgrowth] 1. maintains standoff distance with a brown sponge. Aerts 2000 [Photo]

mound coral / Montastrea sp.: [chemical, competition, nematocyst, stinging cells] 1. heavy chemical damage to mound coral from the stinging tentacles of a space-competing corkscrew anemone Bartholomea annulata. [Photo]

mound coral / Montastrea sp.: [mucus, protection] 1. mucus is produced during an aggressive encounter of a coral and a bearded fireworm Hermodice carunculata. [Photo]

boulder coral / Montastrea sp.: [behaviour, nocturnal] 1. polyps generally closed during daytime and open during nighttime, perhaps minimising contact with polyp-eating predators. [Photo]

mound coral / Montastrea sp.: [acontia, defense, nematocyst] 1. polyps extrude defensive filaments through their body walls to fend off a bearded fireworm Hermodice carunculata. [Photo]

mound coral / Montastrea sp.: [defense, structure] 1. during daytime, polyps withdraw into protection of heavy calcareous skeleton. [Photo]

mound or star coral / Montastrea sp.: [defense, predation, structure] 1. heavy structure no protection against scraping by parrotfishes. [Photo]

boulder coral / Montastrea sp.: [diet, nutrition] 1. gut samples disclose a variety of invertebrate and fish-egg prey. Porter 1974 [Photo]

boulder coral / Montastrea sp.: [diet, nutrition, predator] 1. assessment of prey contribution to overall nutrition. Porter 1974 [Photo]

boulder coral / Montastrea sp.: [carnivory, nutrition] 1. video shows scraping marks made by parrotfishes on the coral. 2. "spot-biting" and "focussed-biting" marks compared. Miller & Hay 1998 [Photo]

boulder coral / Montastrea sp.: [carnivory, nutrition] 1. video shows scraping marks made by parrotfishes on the coral. 2. "spot-biting" and "focussed-biting" marks compared. Bruckner et al. 2000 [Photo]

mound coral / Montastrea sp.: [competition, overgrowth] 1. being overgrown by a colonial tunicate Trididemnum solidum. [Photo]

mound coral / Montastrea sp.: [bleaching] 1. examples of bleached corals. [Video]

boulder coral / Montastrea sp.: [bleaching] 1. Caribbean-wide bleaching event 1987-1988. Williams & Bunkley-Williams 1988 [Photo]

boulder coral / Montastrea sp.: [bleaching, description] 1. description of location of zooxanthellae in a boulder coral. 2. these are the "bleaching elements". [Photo, Drawing]

boulder coral / Montastrea sp.: [bleaching, description] 1. 3 ways that bleaching can occur in a coral. Fitt et al. 2001 [Photo, Drawing]

boulder coral / Montastrea sp.: [bleaching, description] 1. understanding of bleaching process made more complex following discovery that several species of zooxanthellae may be involved. Rowan et al. 1997 [Photo]

boulder coral / Montastrea sp.: [bleaching, description] 1. understanding of bleaching process made more complex following discovery that several species of zooxanthellae may be involved. Baker et al. 2004 [Photo]

boulder coral / Montastrea sp.: [bleaching, description, quiz] 1. quiz on bleaching versus parrotfish scrapings. [Photo]

mound coral / Montastrea sp.: [description, mucus, nutrition, suspension-feeding] 1. description of feeding on detrital food by use of mucus-laden ciliary tracts. Fisk 1981 [Photo]

boulder coral / Montastrea sp.: [nutrition, predation] 1. preyed upon by black sea urchins Diadema antillarum. Bak & van Eys 1975 [Photo]

boulder coral / Montastrea sp.: [mutualism, symbiosis] 1. tend to live mutualistically with orange-icing sponges Mycale laevis which border the edges of the corals. [Photo]

boulder coral / Montastrea sp.: [symbiosis] 1. a quiz to identify what symbiotic relationships are evident in a photograph featuring a crinoid Davidaster sp., a sponge Mycale laevis, a red sponge, and a sea-rod gorgonian, all growing on a boulder coral Montastrea sp.. [Photo]

mound coral / Montastrea sp.: [competition, nematocyst, space, toxic] 1. nematocysts of a space-competing corkscrew anemone Bartholomea annulata have seriously degraded the tissues of this coral. [Photo]

boulder coral / Montastrea sp.: [bleaching, survival] 1. is bleaching of corals related directly to global warming?. Atwood et al. 1992 [Photo]

boulder coral / Montastrea sp.: [disease] 1. diseased and/or bleached part of the coral. [Video]

boulder coral / Montastrea sp.: [disease] 1. diseased patch of coral colonised by a boring sponge Siphonodictyon coralliphagum and various red algae. [Photo]

mound coral / Montastrea sp.: [disease] 1. infested with yellow-band disease in Akumal, Mexico. Bruno et al. 2003 [Photo]

boulder coral / Montastrea sp.: [peril, recreation] 1. disease in corals exacerbated by recreation-caused breakage. [Photo]

boulder coral / Montastrea sp.: [description, peril, recreation] 1. description of harmful effects to corals by touching them, as by curious or careless SCUBA-divers and snorkelers. [Photo, Drawing]

mound coral / Montastrea sp.: [larva, reproduction, spawn] 1. overview of sexual reproduction in a coral-reef organism, in this case, a mound coral. 2. spawn to larva to sesttlement to metamorphosis. [Photo, Drawing]

boulder coral / Montastrea sp.: [egg, predation, spawn] 1. open-water fishes like pomacentrids (Chromis spp.) eat eggs from spawning corals. [Photo]

boulder coral / Montastrea sp.: [photo courtesy] 1. photograph courtesy Anne Dupont, Florida. Dupont [Photo]

plate coral / Montastrea spp.: [chemical, competition, space] 1. line of chemical activity separates two species competing for space. []

boulder coral / Montastrea spp.: [mutualism] 1. grow mutualistically, without apparent competition, with orange-icing sponges Mycale laevis . [Photo]

boulder coral / Montastrea spp.: [ciguatera, poison] 1. when bleached, algae colonise, leading to infestation with ciguatera poisoning dinoflagellates that are eaten by herbivorous fishes leading to disease in the fishes. Kohler & Kohler 1992 [Photo]

boulder coral / Montastrea spp.: [bleaching] 1. some facts and figures about bleaching in boulder corals. Leder et al. 1991 [Photo]

boulder coral / Montastrea spp.: [bleaching] 1. some facts and figures about bleaching in boulder corals. Szmant & Gassman 1990 [Photo]

boulder coral / Montastrea spp.: [bleaching] 1. some facts and figures about bleaching in boulder corals. Goreau & Mcfarlane 1990 [Photo]

boulder coral / Montastrea spp.: [bleaching] 1. bleaching event in Florida in 1997. Warner et al. 1999 [Photo]

boulder coral / Montastrea spp.: [bleaching] 1. ring-bleachin even in 1992 in coral species in Bonaire. Kobluk & Lysenko 1994 [Photo]

boulder coral / Montastrea spp.: [pattern, reproduction] 1. description of pattern of reproduction. [Photo]

boulder coral / Montastrea spp.: [pattern, spawn] 1. factors governing release of spawn. []

mound coral / Montastreae faveolata: [competition, overgrowth] 1. newly introduced aggressive alga (2009) is now overgrowing and killing coral species in Puerto Rico, including mound corals. Ballantine & Ruiz 2013 [Photo]

yellow goatfish / Mulloidichthys martinicus: [diet, nutrition] 1. diet comprises mostly small shellfishes and worms. [Photo]

yellow goatfish / Mulloidichthys martinicus: [detritus, diet, nutrition] 1. likely ingest much detritus as they search for invertebrate prey. [Photo]

gorgonian / Muricea muricata: [bleaching] 1. an example of bleaching in gorgonians. Prada et al. 2010 [Photo]

gorgonian / Muricea spp.: [defense, predation, spicule] 1. spicules may provide defense against predation by flamingo-tongue shells Cyphoma spp.. Harvell & Suchanek 1987 [Photo, Graph]

flower coral / Mussa angulosa: [diversity] 1. one of a selection of Caribbean stony corals. [Photo]

spiny flower coral / Mussa angulosa: [acontia, chemical, competition, mesenterial filament] 1. in Jamaica is a dominant space-competitor owing to its superior use of mesenterial filaments (acontia) in competitions for space. Lang 1973 []

orange icing sponge / Mycale laevis: [mutualism] 1. grows mutualistically, without apparent competition, with boulder corals Montastrea spp.. [Photo]

orange icing sponge / Mycale laevis: [defense, spicule, structure] 1. long spicules around exhalent siphon. [Video]

sponge / Mycale laevis: [defense, experiment, spicule] 1. incorporation of spicules from this sponge into food-pellets does not decrease its palatability to bluehead wrassses Thallosoma bifasciatum . Chanas & Pawlik 1995 [Photo, Graph]

orange icing sponge / Mycale laevis: [mutualism, symbiosis] 1. tend to live mutualistically along the edges of boulder corals Montastrea spp.. [Photo]

sponge / Mycales  laevis: [symbiosis] 1. a quiz to identify what symbiotic relationships are evident in a photograph featuring a crinoid Davidaster sp., a sponge Mycale laevis, a red sponge, and a sea-rod gorgonian, all growing on a boulder coral Montastrea sp.. [Photo]

cactus coral / Mycetophyllia sp.: [competition, overgrowth] 1. the cactus coral is being overgrown by blue-green algae. [Photo]

black grouper / Mycteroperca bonaci: [diet] 1. diet is other fishes or piscivore. [Photo]

black grouper / Mycteroperca bonaci: [danger, poison, ciguatera] 1. one example of many large predators whose flesh may be toxic owing to sequestration of ciguatera toxins obtained from their prey fishes. [Photo]

black grouper / Mycteroperca bonaci: [diet, nutrition] 1. general comment on nutrition of reef dwellers. [Video]

black grouper / Mycteroperca bonaci: [video courtesy] 1. video courtesy Andy Stockbridge, Belize. Stockbridge [Video]

black grouper / Mycteroperca bonaci: [nutrition, preference, prey] 1. chief determinant of type of prey selected is size of the grouper. 2. this large-sized grouper eats fishes. Wainwright & Richard 1995 [Photo]

black grouper / Mycteroperca bonaci: [client, symbiosis, cleaning] 1. being cleaned by an unknown cleaner fish. [Photo]

black grouper / Mycteroperca bonaci: [behaviour, cleaning, client, station] 1. client fishes often behave goofily at cleaning stations. [Video]

black grouper / Mycteroperca bonaci: [feeding, peril] 1. being fed by a SCUBA-diver. [Photo]

tiger grouper / Mycteroperca tigris: [piscivore] 1. diet is other fishes or piscivore. [Photo]

tiger grouper / Mycteroperca tigris: [] 1. video of it swimming with a trumpetfish. [Video]

tiger grouper / Mycteroperca tigris: [diet, nutrition] 1. eat mainly fishes. Sierra et al. 2001 [Photo]

tiger grouper / Mycteroperca tigris: [nutrition, predator] 1. observation on predatory status of tiger groupers. [Video]

tiger grouper / Mycteroperca tigris: [nutrition, preference, prey] 1. chief determinant of type of prey selected is size of the grouper. 2. this medium-sized grouper primarily eats fishes. Wainwright & Richard 1995 [Photo]

yellowfin grouper / Mycteroperca venenosa: [diet, nutrition] 1. eat fishes, shellfishes, and cephalopods. [Video]

yellowfin grouper / Mycteroperca venenosa: [video courtesy] 1. video courtesy Andy Stockbridge, Belize. Stockbridge [Video]

yellowfin grouper / Mycteroperca venenosa: [diet, nutrition, predator] 1. eat squids and octopuses, as well as fishes. [Photo]

mysid shrimp / Myidium sp.: [diversity] 1. an example of diversity of Caribbean crustaceans. [Photo]

mysid shrimp / Myidium sp.: [diversity] 1. an example of diversity of Caribbean crustaceans. [Photo]

blackbar soldierfish / Myripristis jacobus: [pigment, carotenoid] 1. red colours are from carotenoid pigments obtained from crustacean prey. [Photo]

blackbar soldierfish / Myripristis jacobus: [camouflage, coloration] 1. photo series showing how colour patterns change during the day towards dusk. [Photo]

blackbar soldierfish / Myripristis jacobus: [coloration, perception] 1. red wavelengths attenuate at depth. [Video]

blackbar soldierfish / Myripristis jacobus: [defense, hide] 1. hide away during daytime and hunt at night. []

blackbar soldierfish / Myripristis jacobus: [behaviour, defense, hide] 1. this and other night-hunting species hide in crevices during day. []

blackbar soldierfish / Myripristis jacobus: [habitat] 1. temporarily sheltering in a vase sponge Niphates digitalis. [Photo]

mysid shrimp / Mysidium sp.: [diet, nutrition, phytoplankton] 1. one of many types of zooplankton that eat phytoplankton. [Photo, Drawing]

mysid shrimp / Mysis sp.: [behaviour, feeding, nutrition] 1. "puddling" behaviour by feeding southern stingray Dasyatis americana stirs up and/or attracts mysid shrimps . [Video]

mysid shrimp / Mysis sp.: [behaviour, school, swimming] 1. school of zooplanktonic mysid shrimps. [Video]

mysid shrimp / Mysis sp.: [behaviour, school, swimming] 1. describes schooling or swarming behaviour. Twining et al. 2000 [Photo]

mysid shrimp / Mysis sp.: [behaviour, cartoon, protection, school] 1. lost mysid individual attempts to join up with a school. [Drawing]

mysid shrimp / Mysis sp.: [behaviour, escape, school] 1. mysids have lightning fast escape responses. [Photo, Drawing]

electric ray / Narcine brasiliensis: [defense, function, electric] 1. electrical shock of about 40V for defense and possibly intraspecific communicaation. Moller 1995 [Photo]

electric ray / Narcine brasiliensis: [behaviour, diet, nutrition, predator] 1. description of feeding behaviour on sand-dwelling invertebrate prey. Dean & Motta 2004 [Photo]

crinoid / Nemaster grandis: [diversity] 1. example of diversity of Caribbean echinoderms. [Photo]

crinoid / Nemaster grandis: [coloration, function, warning] 1. bright coloration may be for warning, but perhaps not for toxicity of flesh...spinyness is a possibility. [Photo]

crinoid / Nemaster grandis: [commensal, symbiont] 1. sometimes this type of symbiosis is referred to as inquilinism, but often the overlap with commensalism is too great to be able to differentiate them. [Video]

feather star / Nemaster grandis: [commensal, symbiosis] 1. often inhabit gorgonians in a relationship usually defined as a commensalism, but harm of some sort likely befalls the gorgonian. [Photo]

touch me not sponge / Neofibularia nolitangere: [chemical, danger, toxicity] 1. have chemical defenses that can irritate human skin. [Photo]

touch me not sponge / Neofibularia nolitangere: [treatment] 1. treatment for sponge "burns". [Text only]

touch me not sponge / Neofibularia nolitangere: [chemical, defense, toxicity] 1. has chemical toxicity that may be harmful to humans. [Photo]

touch me not sponge / Neofibularia nolitangere: [defense, palatability, spicule] 1. spicules of this sponge incorporated into food-pellets do not greatly decrease its palatability to bluehead wrasses Thallasoma bifasciatum. Chanas & Pawlik 1995 [Photo, Graph]

touch me not sponge / Neofibularia nolitangere: [life cycle, reproduction] 1. details of breeding season, gamete release, and so on. Hoppe 1988 [Photo]

coralline alga / Neogoniolilthon accretum: [disease] 1. afflicted by White Coralline Band Syndrome in areas of Puerto Rico. Ballantine et al. 2005 [Photo]

coralline alga / Neogonolithon sp.: [colonise, nutrition] 1. in St. John, Virgin Islands may adventitiously colonise wounds on fire corals Millepora complanata created by predatory activities of bearded fireworms Hermodice carunculata. Witman 1988 [Photo]

bleeding tooth shell / Nerita peloronta: [diversity] 1. example of diversity of Caribbean molluscs. [Video]

bleeding tooth shell / Nerita peloronta: [diversity] 1. example of diversity of Caribbean molluscs. [Video]

mangrove snail / Nerita sp.: [diversity] 1. cartoon of snail on a mangrove propagule waiting for it to drop. [Drawing]

bleeding tooth shell / Nerita sp.: [herbivore, nutrition] 1. live in the back-reef area and feed on algae and diatoms. [Photo, Drawing]

bleeding tooth shell / Nerita sp.: [pollution, survival] 1. oil pollution can have serious acute effects on survival of all types of coral-reef organisms. [Photo]

bleeding tooth shell / Nerita sp.: [diversity] 1. example of diversity of Caribbean molluscs. [Video]

bleeding tooth shell / Nerita  peloronta: [diversity] 1. example of diversity of Caribbean molluscs. [Photo]

orangespotted goby / Nes longus: [behaviour, burrow, defense, mutualism] 1. shares a protective burrow with a snapping shrimp Alpheus sp.. [Photo]

pink vase sponge / Niphates digitalis: [diversity] 1. example of diversity of Caribbean sponges. [Photo]

pink vase sponge / Niphates digitalis: [predation] 1. numerous zoanthids Parazoanthus parasiticus growing on this sponge have been eaten by the same predator that ate the sponge. West 1976 [Photo]

pink vase sponge / Niphates digitalis: [ecology, function] 1. cartoon strip exploring the ecological relationship between a sponge and its parasitic zoanthids. [Drawing]

pink vase sponge / Niphates digitalis: [chemical, competition] 1. competition for space with a brown encrusting sponge Ectyoplasia ferox. [Photo]

pink vase sponge / Niphates digitalis: [chemical, defense, toxicity] 1. chemical defenses are important to sponges. [Photo]

vase sponge / Niphates digitalis: [cleaner, habitat] 1. a temporary habitat for a pair of banded coral shrimps Stenopus hispidus. [Photo]

pink vase sponge / Niphates digitalis: [mutualism, parasitism, symbiosis] 1. has sponge zoanthids Parazoanthus parasiticus growing on it . 2. relationship may be mutualistic or parasitic. [Photo]

pink vase sponge / Niphates digitalis: [commensal, mutualism, parasitism] 1. when toxic zoanthids live on it and perhaps protects it, are the zoanthids behaving as a commensals, a mutuals, or a parasites?. [Photo]

vase sponge / Niphates digitalis: [commensal, symbiosis] 1. often host commensal brittle stars Ophiothrix suensonii. [Photo]

vase sponge / Niphates digitalis: [photo courtesy] 1. photograph courtesy Anne Dupont, Florida. Dupont [Photo]

vase sponge / Niphates digitalis: [commensal, symbiosis] 1. often host sponge brittle-stars Ophiothrix suensonii . 2. usually termed a commensalism, but some harm may befall the sponge by the brittle star's presence. [Photo]

vase sponge / Niphates digitalis: [habitat] 1. temporarily harbouring a blackbar soldierfish Myripristis jacobus. [Photo]

vase sponge / Niphates digitalis: [asexual, regeneration, reproduction] 1. fish and turtle bitings may produce new clonal recruits from the uneaten bits that may attach and grow. [Photo]

pink vase sponge / Niphates digitalis: [parasitism] 1. comparative study on the extent to which parasitic zoanthids interfere with water flow through a sponge. Lewis & Finelli 2015 [Photo]

rope sponge / Niphates erecta: [growth, mutualism] 1. often grow intertwined...mutualistic benefits?. [Photo]

rope sponge / Niphates erecta: [photo courtesy] 1. photograph courtesy Anne Dupont, Florida. Dupont [Photo]

rope sponge / Niphates erecta: [quiz] 1. exploration of possible benefits of different species of rope sponges growing intertwined. 2. other species include Aplysina califormis. Wulff 1997 [Text only]

pink vase sponge / Niphates  digitalis: [coloration, pigment] 1. pigments eclosed in special cells called chromatocytes. [Photo]

garden eel / Nistactichthys halis: [defense, hide, burrow] 1. dig burrows with their tails and line them probably with mucus secretion. 2. this is an old scientific name. The most recent name is Heteroconger longissimus. Schepper et al. 2007 [Photo]

octopus / Octopus sp.: [chromatophore] 1. colour change by nervous control of chromatophores. [Photo]

octopus / Octopus sp.: [chromatophore, function, nervous] 1. description of chromatophore function. [Photo, Drawing]

octopus / Octopus sp.: [photo courtesy] 1. photograph courtesy Anne Dupont, Florida. Dupont [Photo]

octopus / Octopus sp.: [diversity] 1. example of diversity of Caribbean molluscs. [Video]

octopus / Octopus sp.: [defense, smokescreen] 1. divers chase down and capture an octopus, which inks in objection. [Video]

octopus / Octopus sp.: [behaviour, defense, nocturnal, predator] 1. nocturnal behaviour may minimise contact with potential predators as well as give access to nocturnal crustacean prey. [Photo]

octopus / Octopus sp.: [photo courtesy] 1. photograph courtesy Anne Dupont, Florida. Dupont [Photo]

octopus / Octopus sp.: [defense, tetrodotoxin] 1. octopuses have toxic salivary-gland secretions for killing prey and perhaps for defense. [Photo]

octopus / Octopus sp.: [nutrition, predation, prey] 1. SCUBA-divers force octopus to release ink. [Video]

octopus / Octopus sp.: [cleaning, client, symbiosis] 1. observed in St. Croix being cleaned by cleaner gobies Elacatinus sp.. Johnson & Chase 1982 [Photo]

octopus / Octopus sp.: [photo courtesy] 1. photograph courtesy Anne Dupont, Florida. Dupont [Photo]

octopus / Octopus sp.: [pollution] 1. an octopus collects shiny cans to decorate its den. [Photo]

octopus / Octopus sp.: [diversity] 1. example of diverse Caribbean molluscs. [Video]

octopus / Octopus vulgaris: [camouflage, defense] 1. photographs taken from a video showing wonderful mimicking of seaweeds through adjustments in skin texture and coloration. [Photo]

octopus / Octopus vulgaris: [video courtesy] 1. video shots courtesy Roger Hanlon, Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, Massachusetts. Hanlon [Video]

octopus / Octopus vulgaris: [cleaning, client] 1. documentation of being cleaned by cleaner goby Elacatinus randalli and cleaner wrasse Thalassoma noronhanum. Sazima et al. 2004 [Photo]

ghost crab / Ocypode sp.: [diversity] 1. an example of diversity of semiterrestrial Caribbean crustaceans. [Photo]

ghost crab / Ocypode sp.: [bite, defense] 1. inhabit burrows at the top of the shore, in sand. [Photo]

yellowtail snapper / Ocyurus chrysurus: [coloration, defense, function, pattern] 1. example of defensive value of pattern disruption in Caribbean fishes. [Video]

yellowtail snapper / Ocyurus chrysurus: [chemical, defense, experiment] 1. prostaglandin defenses in gorgonians deter feeding in snappers and also bluehead wrasses Thalassoma bifasciatum. Pawlik & Fenical 1992 [Photo, Drawing]

yellowtail snapper / Ocyurus chrysurus: [behaviour, morphology, nutrition] 1. fast swimmers venture of the reef and have streamlined body shapes. Hobson 1991 [Photo, Animation]

batfish / Ogcocephalus nasutus: [morphology, predator, quiz] 1. part of a quiz relating to facial morphology of predatory fishes. [Photo]

shortnose batfish / Ogcocephalus nasutus: [ambush predator] 1. view of it walking on its pectoral fins. [Video]

shortnose batfish / Ogcocephalus nasutus: [video courtesy] 1. video courtesy Andy Stockbridge, Belize. Stockbridge [Video]

shortnose batfish / Ogcocephalus nasutus: [ambush predator, lure, nutrition, video courtesy] 1. account of their feeding habits. [Photo]

shortnose batfish / Ogcocephalus nasutus: [behaviour] 1. walks on modified fins. [Video]

shortnose batfish / Ogcocephalus nasutus: [video courtesy] 1. video courtesy Andy Stockbridge, Belize. Stockbridge [Video]

spotted snake eel / Ophichthus ophis: [photo courtesy] 1. photograph courtesy Anne Dupont, Florida. Dupont [Photo]

spotted snake eel / Ophichthus ophis: [ambush predator, behaviour, diet] 1. attack and eat benthic fishes and cephalopods from ambush postion. Clark 2000 [Photo]

spotted snake eel / Ophichthus ophis: [morphology, predator, quiz] 1. part of a quiz relating to facial morphology of predatory fishes. [Photo]

spotted snake eel / Ophichthus ophis: [defense, hide] 1. burrow in sand during daytime and hunt at night. [Photo]

spotted snake eel / Ophichthus ophis: [photo courtesy] 1. photograph courtesy Anne Dupont, Florida. Dupont [Photo]

spotted snake eel / Ophichthus ophis: [diet, nutrition, predator] 1. eat squids and octopuses, as well as fishes. [Photo]

spotted snake eel / Ophichthus ophis: [photo courtesy] 1. photograph courtesy Anne Dupont, Florida. Dupont [Photo]

blunt spined brittle star / Ophiocoma echinata: [defense, morphology, nutritional value, spine, palatability] 1. used in an experiment with bluehead wrasses Thalassoma bifasciatum to test possible explanations for the unpalatability of several species of brittle stars. Aronson 1988 [Photo]

blunt spined brittle star / Ophiocoma echinata: [defense, experiment, palatability] 1. used in an experiment with bluehead wrasses Thalassoma bifasciatum to test possible explanations for the unpalatability of it and other species of brittle stars. Aronson 1988 [Photo]

brittle star / Ophiocoma echinata: [dispersal, juvenile] 1. juveniles would have a difficult time floating because of their chunky arm spines. Hendler et al. 1999 [Photo]

brittle star / Ophiocoma sp.: [behaviour, defense, predation] 1. some brittle-star species hang out within folds and crevices of certain sponges. Aronson 1998 [Photo]

brittle star / Ophioderma sp.: [commensal, symbiosis] 1. inhabiting a sea-rod gorgonian Eunicea sp.. 2. usually referred to as a commensalism, but harm must come to the host gorgonian . [Photo]

sponge brittle star / Ophiothrix sp.: [commensal, symbiosis] 1. live on various sponges without, it is thought, harming them. [Video, Text only]

brittle star / Ophiothrix suensonii: [diversity] 1. example of diversity of Caribbean echinoderms. [Photo]

brittle star / Ophiothrix suensonii: [defense, nematocyst, toxicity, toxic] 1. highly toxic nematocysts of fire coral Millepora spp. are no deterrent to this species of brittle star. [Photo]

sponge brittle star / Ophiothrix suensonii: [defense, morphology, spine] 1. arm spines are extremely sharp. [Photo]

sponge brittle star / Ophiothrix suensonii: [photo courtesy] 1. photograph courtesy Anne Dupont, Florida. Dupont [Photo]

sponge brittle star / Ophiothrix suensonii: [defense, morphology, spine] 1. arm spines are extremely sharp. [Photo]

sponge brittle star / Ophiothrix suensonii: [nutrition, predation] 1. hang out in exposed locations, suggesting that they rely for protection from predators either on sharp spines or lack of nutritional value, or both. [Photo]

sponge brittle star / Ophiothrix suensonii: [photo courtesy] 1. photograph courtesy Anne Dupont, Florida. Dupont [Photo]

sponge brittle star / Ophiothrix suensonii: [photo courtesy] 1. photograph courtesy Anne Dupont, Florida. Dupont [Photo]

sponge brittle star / Ophiothrix suensonii: [acid, commensal, symbiosis] 1. crawls on a vase sponge Niphates digitalis. [Photo]

sponge brittle star / Ophiothrix suensonii: [commensal, symbiosis] 1. lives on sponges such vase sponges Niphates digitalis. 2. usually termed a commensalism, but some harm may befall the sponge. [Photo]

brittle star / Ophiothrix suensonii: [dispersal, juvenile] 1. juveniles may disperse by floating, aided by having high surface area to volume. Hendler et al. 1999 [Photo]

brittle star / Ophiothrix suensonii: [photo courtesy] 1. photograph courtesy Anne Dupont, Florida. Dupont [Photo]

yellowhead jawfish / Opistognathus aurifrons: [burrow, defense, hide] 1. hide in burrow when threatened. [Video]

yellowhead jawfish / Opistognathus aurifrons: [video courtesy] 1. video courtesy Andy Stockbridge, Belize. Stockbridge [Video]

yellowhead jawfish / Opistognathus aurifrons: [behaviour, burrow, defense] 1. retreats to burrow when threatened. [Photo]

yellowhead jawfish / Opistognathus aurifrons: [behaviour, burrow, defense] 1. responds differently to different species of predatory fishes. Colin 1971 [Photo]

yellowhead jawfish / Opistognathus aurifrons: [behaviour, burrow] 1. describes how it constructs its burrow. Colin 1973 [Photo]

yellowhead jawfish / Opistognathus aurifrons: [burrow, creation] 1. details of burrow construction. Colin 1973 [Photo, Drawing]

mound coral / Orbicella annularis: [map, marine protected area, survival] 1. decline in cover of this species in the Florida Keys despite it being in a "no-fish" sanctuary. Toth et al. 2014 []

mound coral / Orbicella spp.: [conservation, survival] 1. discovery of a pristine reef in Cartegena Bay, Columbia, surprising given the poor overall state of reefs in this area. Lopez-Victoria et al. 2015 [Photo]

coral reef / Orbicella spp.: [conservation, survival] 1. discovery of a pristine reef in Cartegena Bay, Columbia, surprising given the poor overall state of reefs in this area. Lopez-Victoria et al. 2015 [Photo]

cushion star / Oreaster guildingii: [recruitment, reproduction, sexual] 1. reproduces like most other sea-star species by sexual means. [Video]

cushion star / Oreaster reticulatus: [diversity] 1. an example of the diversity of Caribbean echinoderms. [Video]

cushion star / Oreaster reticulatus: [coloration, function, warning] 1. bright coloration may be for warning, but perhaps not for toxicity of flesh...spinyness is a possibility. [Photo]

cushion star / Oreaster reticulatus: [defense, spine] 1. has calcareous spines that protrude from the body surface, but covered in skin. 2. view of spines. [Photo]

cushion star / Oreaster reticulatus: [diet, nutrition] 1. a "fly-over" video of cushion stars on the sand. [Video]

cushion star / Oreaster reticulatus: [diet, nutrition] 1. in the San Blas Islands of Panama, their diet comprises about 50 different species of sponges. Wulff 1995 [Photo]

cushion star / Oreaster reticulatus: [nutrition, digestion] 1. description of processes of feeding and digestion of sponges. Wulff 1995 [Photo]

cushion star / Oreaster reticulatus: [detritus, diet, nutrition, bioturbation] 1. feeding on sediments contributes to bioturbation, or disturbance of sediments. Scheibling 1982 [Photo]

cushion star / Oreaster reticulatus: [competition, food] 1. in St. Croix may compete with heart urchins Meoma ventricosa for detrital foods. Scheibling 1982 [Photo, Graph]

cushion star / Oreaster reticulatus: [larva, reproduction] 1. first larval stage is bipinnaria, then progresses to the brachiolaria, the settling stage. [Photo, Drawing]

brown alga / Padina  sp.: [defense, experiment, growth, morphology, herbivory] 1. growth form changes depending upon the level of herbivory. Lewis et al. 1987 [Photo, Drawing]

padina / Padina  spp.: [alga, defense, calcification] 1. relies, in part, on a high degree of calcification for defense. [Video]

brown seaweed / Padina  sp.: [chemical, defense, toxicity] 1. otherwise edible species of algae growing near to this toxic one may benefit from "derived" chemical protection. Hay 1991 [Photo]

nudibranch / Paleo jubatus: [photo courtesy] 1. photograph courtesy Anne Dupont, Florida. Dupont [Photo]

nudibranch / Paleo jubatus: [coloration, mate, reproduction, hermaphrodite] 1. coloration in nudibranchs is not related to mating display. [Photo]

zoanthid / Palythoa : [competition, overgrowth] 1. description of features that contribute to their competitive success. [Photo]

white encrusting zoanthid / Palythoa caribaeorum: [growth] 1. one of the fastest-growing zoanthid species. [Photo]

zoanthid / Palythoa caribaeorum: [host] 1. in St. Eustatius commonly used as habitats for clown crabs Platypodiella spectabilis, who dig burrows into the zoanthid's flesh. Garcia-Hernandez et al. 2015 [Photo]

zoanthid / Palythoa mammillosa: [food, nutrition, preference] 1. in Barbados is a preferred food of bearded fireworms Hermodice carunculata. Ott & Lewis 1972 [Photo]

mat zoanthid / Palythoa sp.: [competition, space] 1. video showing how competitively dominant are zoanthid species. [Video]

spiny lobster / Panulirus argus: [diversity] 1. an example of diversity of Caribbean crustaceans. [Video]

spiny lobster / Panulirus argus: [competition, overgrowth] 1. 4 types of algae are overgrowing the lobster's crevice. [Photo]

spiny lobster / Panulirus argus: [defense, escape] 1. video of lobster in a crevice. [Video]

spiny lobster / Panulirus argus: [defense, escape] 1. lobster crawling about after dark. [Photo]

spiny lobster / Panulirus argus: [behaviour, defense, nocturnal] 1. nocturnal behaviour may minimise contact with potential predators. [Photo]

spiny lobster / Panulirus argus: [behaviour, defense, nocturnal, aggregation] 1. in areas of Florida, den-sharing by lobsters may actually be a product of too-few dens. Childress & Herrnkind 1997 [Photo]

spiny lobster / Panulirus argus: [overfishing] 1. fisheries-management guidelines needed for most Caribbean islands. [Photo]

spiny lobster / Panulirus argus: [marine protected area] 1. response to ban on fishing in "no-take" zone of Glover's Reef Lagoon. 2. comparison with spotted lobster Panulirus guttatus in same area. Acosta & Robertson 2003 [Photo, Graph]

spiny lobster / Panulirus guttatus: [marine protected area] 1. response to ban on fishing in "no-take" zone of Glover's Reef Lagoon. 2. comparison with spiny lobster Panulirus argus in same area. Acosta & Robertson 2003 [Photo, Graph]

spiny lobster / Panulirus spp.: [egg, predation, fecundity] 1. fecundity of a large lobster may reach 3 million eggs per year. 2. in theory, in a stable population, all but 2 will not survive to adulthood. Briones-Fourzan & Contreas-Ortiz 1999 [Photo]

spiny lobster / Panulirus spp.: [behaviour, larva, life cycle, survival] 1. consideration of survival risks of larva and juvenile stages. Acosta & Butler 1999 [Photo, Drawing]

spiny lobster / Panulirus spp.: [larva, life cycle, survival] 1. consideration of survival strategies of larva and juvenile stages. Lewis 1951 [Photo, Drawing]

spiny lobster / Panulirus spp.: [photo courtesy] 1. drawings of puerulus stage Courtesy of Calinski & Lyons 1983 J Crust Biol 3: 329.. Calinski & Lyons 1983 [Drawing]

spiny lobster / Panulirus spp.: [quiz] 1. quiz on survival-enhancement value of certain combinations of environmental factors. [Drawing]

spiny lobster / Panulirus  argus: [aggregation, diet, nutrition] 1. favoured prey in Florida is the snail Cerithium littoratum. Cox et al. 1997 [Graph]

filefish / Paraluteres prionurus: [coloration, defense, mimicry] 1. field experiment in Lizard Island, Australia to test whether colour pattern of this filefish is mimicking that of a toxic pufferfish Canthigaster valentini. Caley & Schluter 2003 [Photo, Drawing]

filefish / Paraluteres prionurus: [coloration, defense, mimicry] 1. quiz relating to a field experiment in Lizard Island, Australia to test whether colour pattern of this filefish is mimicking that of a toxic pufferfish Canthigaster valentini. Caley & Schluter 2003 [Photo, Drawing]

filefish / Paraluteres prionurus: [coloration, defense, mimicry] 1. field test of Batesian mimicry using two south-Pacific fishes. Caley & Schluter 2003 [Photo]

zoanthid / Parazoanthus catenularis: [parasitism] 1. comparative study on the extent to which parasitic zoanthids interfere with water flow through a sponge. Lewis & Finelli 2015 [Photo]

sponge zoanthid / Parazoanthus parasiticus: [coloration, function, toxicity, warning] 1. individuals growing on a vase sponge Niphates digitalis have been eaten by some type of predator. West 1976 [Photo]

sponge zoanthid / Parazoanthus parasiticus: [ecology, function] 1. cartoon strip exploring the ecological relationship between a sponge and its parasitic zoanthids. [Drawing]

sponge zoanthid / Parazoanthus parasiticus: [mutualism, parasitism, symbiosis] 1. growing on a pink-vase sponge Niphates digitalis. 2. relationship may be mutualistic or parasitic. [Photo]

sponge zoanthid / Parazoanthus parasiticus: [commensal, mutualism, parasitism] 1. when it lives on a sponge and perhaps provides protection for it, is the zoanthid behaving as a commensal, a mutual, or a parasite?. [Photo]

sponge zoanthid / Parazoanthus parasiticus: [habitat, parasitism] 1. when on a sponge, such as Cliona delitrix, the zoanthid polyps intersperse themselves between the many inhalent openings of the sponge. 2. parasitism?. Crocker & Reiswig 1981 [Photo]

sponge zoanthid / Parazoanthus parasiticus: [cartoon, mutualism, parasitism, symbiont] 1. a polyp discusses the possible types of interaction that it may be having with the inhalent openings of a boring sponge Cliona delitrix. [Drawing]

sponge zoanthid / Parazoanthus parasiticus: [behaviour, cartoon, mutualism, parasitism, polyp, symbiosis] 1. a zoanthid polyp discusses its possible parasitic or mutualistic interaction with one of the inhalent openings on the sponge. [Drawing]

sponge zoanthid / Parazoanthus parasiticus: [behaviour, cartoon, mutualism, parasitism, polyp, symbiosis] 1. a zoanthid polyp discusses its possible parasitic or mutualistic interaction with one of the inhalent openings on the sponge. [Drawing]

zoanthid / Parazoanthus parasiticus: [asexual, growth] 1. growth is by asexual budding . [Photo]

zoanthid / Parazoanthus parasiticus: [parasitism] 1. comparative study on the extent to which parasitic zoanthids interfere with water flow through a sponge. Lewis & Finelli 2015 [Photo]

zoanthid / Parazoanthus swiftii: [asexual, growth] 1. growth is by asexual budding. [Photo]

hydroid zoanthid / Parazoanthus tunicans: [competition, overgrowth] 1. favours hydroids as hosts to grow on, such as Dentitheca dendritica. [Photo]

tear drop crab / Pelia muta: [camouflage, defense] 1. attaches bits of sponge to its exoskeleton for camouflaging. [Photo]

cryptic teardrop crab / Pelia mutica: [symbiont] 1. view of one sitting in a gorgonian. [Video]

Pederson cleaner shrimp / Periclimenes pedersoni: [colour, function] 1. cleaners shrimps are brightly coloured and actively display themselves for their client's notice. [Video]

cleaner shrimp / Periclimenes pedersoni: [behaviour, defense] 1. these shrimps often associate with anemones, perhaps benefitting from their superior defense. [Video]

cleaner shrimp / Periclimenes pedersoni: [behaviour, defense] 1. sheltering among the protective tentacles of a sea anemone Lebrunia danae. [Photo]

cleaner shrimp / Periclimenes pedersoni: [video courtesy] 1. video courtesy Andy Stockbridge, Belize. Stockbridge []

Pederson cleaner shrimp / Periclimenes pedersoni: [cleaner, symbiosis] 1. view of shrimp on the reef. [Video]

Pederson cleaner shrimp / Periclimenes pedersoni: [video courtesy] 1. video courtesy Andy Stockbridge, Belize. Stockbridge [Video]

Pederson cleaner shrimp / Periclimenes pedersoni: [habitat, host, video courtesy] 1. when not cleaning fishes, live within the protective tentacles of host sea anemones. [Photo]

Pederson cleaner shrimp / Periclimenes pedersoni: [cleaning, client, symbiosis] 1. a pair is in the process of cleaning a coney . [Photo]

Pederson cleaner shrimp / Periclimenes pedersoni: [cleaner, parasitism] 1. French grunts Haemulon flavolineatum are best cleaned of parasitic isopods by Pederson cleaner shrimps Periclimenes pedersoni, but not by other cleaner shrimps or cleaner fishes. Bunkley-Williams & Williams 1998 [Photo, Drawing]

Pederson cleaner shrimp / Periclimenes pedersoni: [behaviour, cleaning] 1. observations show that cleaning occupies less than 5% of the shrimp's daily time-budget. Jonasson 1986 [Photo]

Pederson cleaner shrimp / Periclimenes pedersoni: [behaviour, cleaner] 1. dance to attract the attention of fishes that may need cleaning. [Video]

Pederson cleaner shrimp / Periclimenes pedersoni: [behaviour, cleaner, mutualism, symbiosis] 1. generally stay within the protective umbrella of a host-aemone's tentacles, a relationship that may be a mutualism or commensalism. [Photo]

Pederson cleaner shrimp / Periclimenes pedersoni: [commensal] 1. a quiz on which organism in the photograph is commensal with a corkscrew anemone Bartholomea annulata. [Photo]

Pederson's cleaner shrimp / Periclimenes pedersoni: [cleaner] 1. in tests in St. Thomas, only this species of 3 tested (others are P. yucatanicus and Stenopus hispidus) actually were seen to clean blue tangs Acanthurus coeruleus. McCammon et al. 2010 [Text only]

cleaner shrimpt / Periclimenes pedersoni: [behaviour, cleaner, client] 1. large sampling of cleaners and client fishes in St. Croix. 2. creole wrasses Clepticus parrae rarely cleaned by cleaner shrimps. Johnson & Ruben 1988 [Photo]

cleaner shrimp / Periclimenes rathbuni: [behaviour, cleaner, colour, host] 1. in some areas host cnidarian is a corallimorph Ricordea florida., not a sea anemone. Ritson-Williams & Paul 2007 [Photo]

spotted cleaner shrimp / Periclimenes sp.: [description, parasitism] 1. experiment to determine if the relationship of shrimps with sea anemones is a mutualism or parasitism. Fautin et al. 1995 [Drawing]

spotted cleaner shrimp / Periclimenes sp.: [experiment, mutualism, parasitism, quiz] 1. quiz to interpret results of experiment on shrimp/anemone mutualism (or parasitism). [Drawing]

cleaner shrimp / Periclimenes sp.: [symbiosis] 1. lives within the protective tentacle canopy of sea anemones (e.g., Condylactis gigantea). [Video]

cleaner shrimp / Periclimenes spp.: [mutualism, symbiont] 1. in areas around Grand Bahama Island commonly found in relation with sea anemones Lebrunea danae. Herrnkind et al. 1976 [Photo]

cleaner shrimp / Periclimenes yucatanicus: [diversity] 1. an example of diversity of Caribbean crustaceans. [Photo]

spotted cleaner shrimp / Periclimenes yucatanicus: [colour, function, cleaner] 1. brightly coloured and visible from a distance to attract client fishes. [Photo]

spotted cleaner shrimp / Periclimenes yucatanicus: [cleaner, coloration, function, host] 1. bright colours of cleaner shrimps are thought to bring notice of them to their client fishes. [Photo]

spotted cleaner shrimp / Periclimenes yucatanicus: [cleaner, coloration, function] 1. bright colours of cleaner shrimps have likely evolved as signals to their client fish. [Photo]

Pederson cleaner shrimp / Periclimenes yucatanicus: [cleaner, coloration, function] 1. bright colours of cleaner shrimps have likely evolved as signals to their client fish. [Photo]

spotted cleaner shrimp / Periclimenes yucatanicus: [behaviour, defense, protection] 1. often shelter within the protective tentacles of giant anemones Condylactis gigantea. [Photo]

spotted cleaner shrimp / Periclimenes yucatanicus: [cleaner, host, symbiosis] 1. when not cleaning fishes, hang out in "host" sea anemones, commonly the giant anemone Condylactis gigantea. [Photo]

spotted cleaner shrimp / Periclimenes yucatanicus: [behaviour, cleaning] 1. observations show that cleaning occupies less than 5% of the shrimp's daily time-budget. Jonasson 1986 [Photo]

spotted cleaner shrimp / Periclimenes yucatanicus: [cartoon, symbiosis] 1. two shrimps discuss their bright coloration and their relationship with their host sea anemone. [Drawing]

spotted cleaner shrimp / Periclimenes yucatanicus: [mutualism, symbiosis] 1. commonly seek out protection with the tentacles of giant anemones Condylactis gigantea . []

cleaner shrimp / Periclimenes yucatanicus: [cleaner] 1. in tests in St. Thomas, this purported cleaner was not observed to clean blue tangs Acanthurus coeruleus. McCammon et al. 2010 [Text only]

cleaner shrimp / Periclimenes yucatanicus: [behaviour, cleaner, colour, host] 1. in some areas host cnidarian is a corallimorph Actinotryx sp., not a sea anemone. Ritson-Williams & Paul 2007 [Photo]

coralline red alga / Peyssonnelia sp.: [nutrition, photosynthesis, pigment] 1. a heavily calcified species that helps to cement and protect the reef. [Photo]

coralline alga / Peyssonnelia spp.: [edibility, structure] 1. ranked 6th "most herbivore-edible" of 6 Caribbean algal species . 2. crustose, heavily calcified. [Photo]

dusky cardinalfish / Phaeoptyx pigmentria: [chromatophore] 1. chromatophore activity more easily seen in juveniles. [Photo]

dusky cardinalfish / Phaeoptyx pigmentria: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Linda Ianiello, Florida. Ianiello [Photo]

nudibranch / Phestilla panamica: [metamorphosis, settlement] 1. settlement of veliger larvae is directly onto prey corals Porites, where they metamorphose and begin eating. Hadfield 1998 [Photo]

nudibranch / Phestilla sibogae: [photo courtesy] 1. photographs courtesy Mike Hadfield, University of Hawai'i. Hadfield [Photo]

nudibranch / Phestilla sibogae: [metamorphosis, settlement] 1. sequence illustrated for a veliger larva settling on a prey species of finger coral Porites sp.. [Photo]

nudibranch / Phestilla sibogae: [photo courtesy] 1. photos courtesy Mike Hadfield, University of Hawai'i. Hadfield [Photo]

lynx nudibranch / Phidiana lynceus: [aposemetism, chemical, defense, nematocyst, toxic] 1. nematocysts acquired from cnidarian prey are eaten, sequestered, and used in its own defense. 2. cerata where the nematocysts are housed are colorfully demarcated, suggesting warning coloration, or aposemetism. [Photo]

lynx nudibranch / Phidiana lynceus: [photo courtesy] 1. photograph courtesy Anne Dupont, Florida. Dupont [Photo]

polkadot hermit crab / Phimochirus operculatus: [coloration] 1. comments on the function of its coloration. [Photo]

polkadot hermit crab / Phimochirus  operculatus: [photo courtesy] 1. photograph courtesy John Lewis, McGill University, Montreal. Lewis [Photo]

polkadot hermit crab / Phimochirus  operculatus: [diet, nutrition] 1. among other types of invertebrate prey, also eat coral polyps. Gilchrist 1985 [Photo]

Portuguese man of war / Physalia physalis: [defense, nematocyst, toxicity] 1. highly toxic nematocysts. [Photo]

Portuguese man of war / Physalia physalis: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Cindy Young, Mousetrap Multimedia, Vancouver. Young [Photo]

Portuguese man of war / Physalia sp.: [diversity] 1. an example of a hydrozoan relative of Caribbean stony corals. [Photo]

Portuguese man of war / Physalia sp.: [diversity] 1. photograph of two fishes caught and killed by a Portuguese man of war Physalia sp.. [Photo]

Portuguese man of war / Physalia sp.: [nematocyst, stinging cells] 1. shows vertical contractile movements in the fishing tentacles. [Video]

Portuguese man of war / Physalia sp.: [diet, nutrition, predator] 1. eat mainly fishes. [Photo]

Portuguese man of war / Physalia sp.: [nematocyst, stinging cells, tentacles] 1. demonstration of enormous contractility of tentacles - up to 70-fold. [Video]

Portuguese man of war / Physalia sp.: [defense, description, feeding, nematocyst, polyp, stinging cells, tentacles] 1. description of different polyps, feeding and defensive, and the nematocysts they carry. [Photo]

Portuguese man of war / Physalia sp.: [photo courtesy, tentacles] 1. photograph courtesy Cindy Young, Vancouver. Young [Photo]

Portuguese man of war / Physalia spp.: [nematocyst, stinging cells] 1. description of fishing tentacles and other biology. [Photo]

Portuguese man of war / Physalia spp.: [carnivory, nutrition, predation] 1. eaten by specialised pelagic opisthobranchs Glaucus atlanticus. [Photo]

Portuguese man of war / Physalia spp.: [photo courtesy] 1. photograph courtesy Cindy Young, Vancouver. Young [Photo]

pearl oyster / Pinctada sp.: [colour, nacre, pearl] 1. lustre of pearls explained. [Photo]

gaudy clown crab / Platypodiella sp.: [diversity] 1. an example of diversity of Caribbean crustaceans. [Photo]

gaudy clown crab / Platypodiella spectabilis: [coloration] 1. photograph with comments on the function of its colours. [Photo]

gaudy clown crab / Platypodiella spectabilis: [photo courtesy] 1. photograph courtesy John Lewis, McGill University, Montreal. [Photo]

gaudy clown crab / Platypodiella spectabilis: [eye, perception, vision, colour] 1. quiz on comparative colour perception in a number of Caribbean reef animals. [Photo]

gaudy clown crab / Platypodiella spectabilis: [coloration, toxicity, warning] 1. are its bright colours for warning?. [Photo]

gaudy clown crab / Platypodiella spectabilis: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy John Lewis, Montreal. 2. this photograph has been used multiple times in BCCR. Lewis [Photo]

clown crab / Platypodiella spectabilis: [coloration, host, pattern] 1. commonly live in burrows dug out of encrusting zoanthids Palythoa caribaeorum. Garcia-Hernandez et al. 2015 [Photo]

clown crab / Platypodiella spectabilis: [coloration, pattern] 1. in British Virgin Islands shelter in crevices and interstices in coral rubble. Martin & Zimmer 2007 [Photo]

gorgonian / Plexaura flexuosa: [food, predation, preference] 1. less favoured as food by bearded fireworms Hermodice carunculata in Puerto Rico. Vreeland & Lasker 1989 [Photo]

black sea rod gorgonian / Plexaura sp.: [asexual, experiment, recruitment, reproduction] 1. clonal recruits identified as being from the same parent through histocompatibility tests. Lasker & Coffroth 1985 []

sea rod gorgonian / Plexaurella sp.: [photosynthesis, symbiont, zooxanthellae] 1. most or all gorgonians have photosynthesising plant cells (zooxanthellae) in their tissues. [Photo]

cauliflower coral / Pocillopora damicornis: [pattern, reproduction] 1. broods the planula for a time in its digestive cavity. 2. Indo-Pacific species. [Photo]

cauliflower coral / Pocillopora damicornis: [larva, life cycle] 1. release of brooded larvae is on a lunar cycle. Jokiel 1985 [Graph]

decorator crab / Podochela sp.: [camouflage, defense] 1. not too well camouflaged on a backdrop of gorgonian. [Video]

decorator crab / Podochela sp.: [video courtesy] 1. video courtesy Andy Stockbridge, Belize. Stockbridge [Video]

decorator crab / Podochela sp.: [camouflage, defense, video courtesy] 1. camouflaging owes mainly to hydroid and other growth on its exoskeleton. [Photo]

giant tunicate / Polycarpa spongiabilis: [defense, structure] 1. has a tough, leathery covering known as a tunic, formed of a cellulose-like substance. [Photo]

giant tunicate / Polycarpa spongiabilis: [diversity] 1. an example of a large solitary tunicate in the Caribbean. [Photo]

gray angelfish / Pomacanthus arcuatus: [ciguatera, disease] 1. one of several species severely affected by ciguatera poisoning in the Florida Keys in the 1990s. Landsberg 1995 [Photo]

gray angelfish / Pomacanthus arcuatus: [diet, function, morphology, mouth] 1. comparison of functional morphology of mouths of different fish species in relation to diet. [Photo, Drawing]

gray angelfish / Pomacanthus arcuatus: [diet, nutrition] 1. dedicated sponge-eater, but will eat gorgonians. Hourigan et al. 1989 [Photo]

French angelfish / Pomacanthus paru: [camouflage, coloration] 1. both adult and juvenile phases bear yellow colorations that may be camouflaging from a distance. [Photo]

French angelfish / Pomacanthus paru: [camouflage, coloration] 1. both adult and juvenile phases bear yellow colorations that may be camouflaging from a distance. [Photo]

French angelfish / Pomacanthus paru: [coloration, function] 1. bright colours on the eye may function to convey intraspecific signals. Thresher 1977 [Photo]

French angelfish / Pomacanthus paru: [coloration, eye, function] 1. eye coloration may function as recognition cue within the species. [Photo]

French angelfish / Pomacanthus paru: [cleaner, coloration, function, juvenile] 1. cleaners are brightly coloured ("poster" colours) to enable client fishes to recognise them. Thresher 1977 [Photo]

French angelfish / Pomacanthus paru: [predator] 1. leathery barrel sponges Geodia neptuni do not have chemical defenses and are readily eaten by predators, including hawksbill turtles Eretmochelys imbricata and French angelfishes Pomacanthus paru. Meylan 1988 [Photo]

French angelfish / Pomacanthus paru: [morphology, predator] 1. quiz dealing with topic of common features of a predatory fish. [Photo]

French angelfish / Pomacanthus paru: [diet, nutrition] 1. subsist mainly on sponges. [Video]

French angelfish / Pomacanthus paru: [video courtesy] 1. video courtesy Andy Stockbridge, Belize. Stockbridge [Video]

French angelfish / Pomacanthus paru: [diet, nutrition] 1. dedicated sponge-eater. [Video]

French angelfish / Pomacanthus paru: [diet, nutrition] 1. dedicated sponge-eater, but will eat gorgonians. Hourigan et al. 1989 [Photo]

French angelfish / Pomacanthus paru: [diet, nutrition, predator] 1. photos of turtle Eretmochelys imbricata and French angelfish eating a leathery barrel sponge Geodia neptuni. [Photo]

French angelfish / Pomacanthus paru: [bite, parasitism, predation] 1. when it takes non-lethal bites out of a brown tube-sponge Ageles conifera, is the angelfish behaving as a predator or parasite?. [Photo]

French angelfish / Pomacanthus paru: [competition, food, preemptive] 1. engages in preemptive competition for sponge food with hawksbill turtles Eretmochelys imbricata. [Photo]

coral / Porites astreoides: [competition] 1. is being overgrown by coralline alga Neogoniolithon accretum that itself is partially diseased by White Coralline Band Syndrome. Ballantine et al. 2005 [Photo]

lobe coral / Porites lobata: [stress, storms] 1. before and after account of storm damage to Kona coast, Hawai'i reefs. Walsh 1983 [Photo]

finger coral / Porites porites: [diversity] 1. example of Caribbean stony corals. []

finger coral / Porites porites: [competition, overgrowth] 1. corals are overgrown with a reddish alga that may be killing them. [Video]

finger coral / Porites porites: [video courtesy, overgrowth] 1. video courtesy Andy Stockbridge, Belize. Stockbridge [Video]

finger coral / Porites porites: [nutrition, predation] 1. shows an unusual view of snapped- or bitten-off coral "fingers". [Video]

finger coral / Porites porites: [bleaching] 1. examples of bleached corals. [Video]

finger coral / Porites porites: [detritus, mucus, nutrition] 1. certain environmental conditions in Panama may lead to nutritive pulses of sediment-laden mucus from these finger corals. [Photo]

finger coral / Porites porites: [asexual, recruitment, reproduction] 1. coral bits grow and recruit anew. [Photo]

finger coral / Porites porites: [pattern, reproduction] 1. information about egg brooding and planula life. [Photo]

finger coral / Porites porites: [recruitment] 1. unstable coral rubble is consolidated by sponge growth, leading to cementation by coralline algae and later colonisation by other corals. Wulff 1984 [Photo]

finger coral / Porites porites: [recruitment] 1. recruitment of finger corals to rubble that has been consolidated by sponge growth and cemented by coralline algae and bryozoans. Wulff 1984 [Photo]

finger coral / Porites porites: [storms] 1. accounts of hurricane damage to reefs at Cozumel, Mexico in 2005. Alvarez-Filip & Gil 2006 [Photo]

finger coral / Porites sp.: [feeding, mucus, stress] 1. mucus produced by some corals on a lunar cycle. Coffroth 1985 [Photo]

finger coral / Porites spp.: [food, nutrition, preference] 1. in Barbados are preferred foods of bearded fireworms Hermodice carunculata. Ott & Lewis 1972 [Photo]

chondrophore / Porpita porpita: [predation] 1. eaten by bubble-raft snails Janthina janthina. [Photo]

finger coral / Portites sp.: [cartoon, mucus] 1. cartoon series showing a blue chromis fish talking to a finger coral about the cyclical nature of its mucus production. [Drawing]

ocellate swimming crab / Portunus sebae: [bite, danger] 1. fast moving, with sharp pincers. [Photo]

ocellate swimming crab / Portunus sebae: [bite, danger] 1. an individual with several limbs missing, including a claw. [Photo]

ocellate swimming crab / Portunus sebae: [bite, treatment, danger] 1. general treatment for crab bites. [Photo]

ocellate swimming crab / Portunus sebae: [bite, defense] 1. claws are sharply pointed, move fast, and give a sharp bite. [Photo]

ocellate swimming crab / Portunus sebae: [photo courtesy] 1. photograph courtesy Florent Charpin, Florent's Guide to the Tropical Reefs. Charpin [Photo]

swimming crab / Portunus sebae: [defense, escape] 1. has paddle-shaped back legs for quick swimming. [Photo]

swimming crab / Portunus sebae: [behaviour, ink, toxic] 1. when exposed to ink from sea hares Aplysia dactylomela its heart arrests alternating with fibrillation. Carefoot & Pennings 1999 [Photo]

branching tube sponge / Pseudoceratina crassa: [coloration, cyanobacteria] 1. sponge colours owe to pigment deposits and to presence of cyanobacterial symbionts. [Photo]

purple tube sponge / Pseudoceratina crassa: [chemical, competition] 1. stand-off position involving chemical competition with a brain coral Diploria sp.. [Photo]

tube sponge / Pseudoceratina crassa: [chemical, competition] 1. competition for space with a rope sponge Aplysina sp.. [Photo]

tube sponge / Pseudoceratina crassa: [defense, predator, regeneration] 1. sponges appear to have quick regenerative abilities, useful when chunks are removed by predators. Swearingen & Pawlik 1998 [Photo]

spotted goatfish / Pseudopeneus maculatus: [behaviour, feeding, nutrition] 1. feeding behaviour. [Video]

gorgonian / Pseudoplexaura sp.: [food, predation, preference] 1. less favoured as food by bearded fireworms Hermodice carunculata in Puerto Rico. Vreeland & Lasker 1989 [Photo]

gorgonian / Pseudoplexaura sp.: [bleaching] 1. an example of bleaching in gorgonians. Prada et al. 2010 [Photo]

sea rod / Pseudoplexaura sp.: [predation] 1. description of it being fed on intensely by flamingo-tongue shells in Mona Island, Puerto Rico . Scharer & Nemeth 2010 [Photo]

bipinnate sea plume / Pseudopterogorgia bipinnata: [competition, overgrowth] 1. specimen being overgrown by fire coral Millipora sp. appears to offer little resistance. [Photo]

bipinnate sea plume / Pseudopterogorgia bipinnata: [chemical, competition, overgrowth] 1. is being overgrown by a brown encrusting sponge Ectoplasia ferox, but not without fierce chemical resistance. [Photo]

gorgonian / Pseudopterogorgia bipinnata: [food, nutrition, preference] 1. in the San Blas Islands of Panama polyps of this species are preferred as food by foureye butterflyfishes Chaetodon capistratus. Lasker 1985 [Photo]

spotted goatfish / Pseudupeneus maculatus: [behaviour, feeding, nutrition] 1. behaviour during feeding. [Video]

spotted goatfish / Pseudupeneus maculatus: [video courtesy] 1. video courtesy Andy Stockbridge, Belize. Stockbridge [Video]

wing oyster / Pteria penguin: [colour, structural, shell] 1. shell colours created by diffraction of light. [Photo]

wing oyster / Pteria penguin: [colour, nacre] 1. how colours are created in shell nacre. [Photo, Drawing]

wing oyster / Pteria penguin: [colour, diffraction] 1. colours are created by diffraction of light in shell nacre. [Drawing]

gorgonian / Pterogorgia anceps: [egg, reproduction, brooding] 1. in areas of Belize sometimes will brood its eggs on the colony surface. Ritson-Williams 2010 [Photo]

lionfish / Pterois sp.: [behaviour, coloration, defense, mimicry] 1. video of Red Sea lionfish showing what may be fish-mimicking lures on its head. [Video]

lionfish / Pterois sp.: [coloration, mimicry] 1. possible fish-mimicking lure on the head of this lionfish. [Photo]

lionfish / Pterois sp.: [mimicry, lure] 1. appears to be a fishing lure on its head. [Video]

lionfish / Pterois sp.: [coloration, mimicry, lure] 1. appears to be a fishing lure on its head. [Photo, Video]

lionfish / Pterois sp.: [photo courtesy] 1. photograph courtesy Antonio Busiello, Roatan. Busiello [Photo]

lionfish / Pterois spp.: [acid, predator, invasive] 1. in inner Belize barrier reef is killing off an endemic wrasse, the social wrasse Halichoeres socialis. Rocha et al. 2015 [Photo]

lionfish / Pterois spp.: [conservation, invasive, peril] 1. summary of a scientific symposium dealing with invasive lionfishes. Hixon et al. 2016 [Photo]

lionfish / Pterois spp.: [conservation, invasive, predation] 1. study on skin bacteria of lionfishes that may enhance their competitive abilities. Stevens et al. 2016 [Photo]

lionfish / Pterois spp.: [conservation, invasive, predation] 1. use of DNA typing methodology to assess diets. Harms-Tuohy et al. 2016 [Photo]

lionfish / Pterois spp.: [conservation, invasive, predation] 1. removal-type experiments to assess ecological relationships. Dahl et al. 2016 [Photo]

lionfish / Pterois spp.: [conservation, invasive, predation] 1. removal-type experiments show that lionfishes reduce numbers of fairy basselets Gramma loreta, but not their genetic diversity. Palmer et al. 2016 [Photo]

lionfish / Pterois spp.: [planktivorous] 1. density-manipulation experiments to determine additive or subtractive effects of lionfishes and red groupers on survival of juvenile reef fishes. Benkwitt 2016 [Photo]

lionfish / Pterois spp.: [planktivorous] 1. when densities become high, lionfishes expand their hunting territories from reefs to seagrass meadows. Benkwitt 2016 [Photo]

lionfish / Pterois spp.: [conservation, invasive, survival] 1. indirect interactions of red groupers Epinephelus morio with lionfishes Pterois spp. can modify direct predatory effects on juvenile reef fishes. Ellis & Falletti 2016 [Photo]

lionfish / Pterois spp.: [conservation, invasive, survival] 1. summary statement relating to symposium on invasive lionfishes in the Caribbean region. Hixon et al. 2016 [Text only]

lionfish / Pterois volitans: [coloration, function, toxicity, warning] 1. highly toxic spines and flamboyantly coloured for warning. [Photo]

lionfish / Pterois volitans: [coloration, function, toxicity, warning, ecology] 1. a conservationist's point of view regarding bounties placed on dead lionfishes. [Photo]

lionfish / Pterois volitans: [photo courtesy] 1. photograph of shark eating a lionfish courtesy Antonio Busiello. [Photo]

lionfish / Pterois volitans: [spine, toxicity] 1. view of an Red Sea lionfish swimming. [Video]

lionfish / Pterois volitans: [predation] 1. lionfishes are eaten by Nassau groupers in areas of the Bahamas. Maljkovic & van Leeuwen 2008 [Photo]

lionfish / Pterois volitans: [conservation, invasive, population] 1. comment on quick spread of this alien species throughout the Caribbean. Green & Cote 2009 [Photo]

lionfish / Pterois  spp.: [conservation, invasive, predation] 1. laboratory experiments comparing different levels of predation from lionfishes and graysby groupers on survival of fairy basselets Gramma loreto and blackcap basselets G. melacara. Kindinger & Anderson 2016 [Photo]

lionfish / Pterois  spp.: [conservation, invasive, predation] 1. field experiments show that predation from lionfishes when added to that from native predatory fishes can tip the balance of survival of fairy basselets to extinction. Ingeman 2016 [Photo]

sunflower star / Pycnopodia  helianthoides: [bite, pedicellaria] 1. shows how effective these small biting jaws are when the sea star attacks a purple urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. [Photo]

sunflower star / Pycnopodia  helianthoides: [autotomy, defense] 1. some sea stars are able to cast off an arm in times of duress. 2. the severed arm may crawl around for a while, perhaps attracting the attention of a predator while the sea star makes its escape. [Photo]

red alga / Ramicrusta textilis: [competition, overgrowth] 1. newly introduced aggressive alga (2009) is now overgrowing and killing coral species in Puerto Rico. Ballantine & Ruiz 2013 [Photo]

white fan bryozoan / Reteporellina evelinae: [diet, nutrition] 1. primarily eat zooplankton. [Photo]

red mangrove / Rhizophora mangle: [diversity] 1. example of mangrove forest. [Video]

red mangrove / Rhizophora mangle: [diversity] 1. views of mangrove forests. 2. buttress roots. [Photo]

red mangrove / Rhizophora mangle: [diversity] 1. roots host growths of invertebrates and algae. [Photo]

red mangrove / Rhizophora mangle: [diversity] 1. buttress roots. [Photo]

red mangrove / Rhizophora mangle: [diversity] 1. explanation for survival of mangroves in salt water. 2. lenticels and pneumatophores. [Photo]

corallimorpharian / Ricordea florida: [carnivory, nutrition, predation] 1. in the Dominican Republic is eaten by hawksbill turtles Eretmochelys imbricata. Leon & Bjorndal 2002 [Photo]

corallimorpharian / Ricordea florida: [behaviour, cleaner, host] 1. in some areas may act as host cnidarian for cleaner shrimps Periclimenes . Ritson-Williams & Paul 2007 [Photo]

soapfish / Rypticus saponaceus: [chemical, toxicity] 1. not clear if touching a soapfish can be harmful. [Photo]

soapfish / Rypticus saponaceus: [behaviour, toxicity] 1. shows typical behaviour of lying on one side. [Video]

soapfish / Rypticus saponaceus: [defense, poison] 1. photos of soapfishes resting under overhangs. 2. secretion contains a polypeptide that is toxic to guppies. Maretzki & del Castillo 1967 [Photo, Video]

feather duster worm / Sabellastarte magnifica: [diversity] 1. example of diversity of Caribbean worms. [Video]

feather duster worm / Sabellastarte magnifica: [diversity] 1. example of diversity of Caribbean worms. [Video]

tubeworm / Sabellastarte magnifica: [competition, space] 1. this species of worm, at least, seems to be able to colonise a coral without the latter mounting a defensive chemical attack. [Photo]

feather duster worm / Sabellastarte magnifica: [behaviour, defense, hide] 1. when disturbed, quickly withdraws into its tube. [Video]

feather duster worm / Sabellastarte magnifica: [behaviour, defense, regeneration] 1. tubeworms have excellent regenerative powers. [Photo]

feather duster worm / Sabellastarte magnifica: [diet, nutrition, phytoplankton] 1. eats phytoplankton along with other organic particles. [Photo]

splendid toadfish / Sanopus splendidus: [coloration, function, toxicity, warning] 1. bright yellow pectoral fins warn of toxicity. [Photo]

splendid toadfish / Sanopus  splendidus: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Anne Dupont, Florida. [Photo]

splendid toadfish / Sanopus  splendidus: [defense, spine] 1. description of spine/toxin defense. [Photo]

splendid toadfish / Sanopus  splendidus: [diet, nutrition, predator] 1. favours a diet of sea urchins. Hoffman & Robertson 1983 [Photo]

splendid toadfish / Sanopus  splendidus: [photo courtesy] 1. photograph courtesy Anne Dupont, Florida. Dupont [Photo]

splendid toadfish / Sanopus  splendidus: [diet, ecology, keystone, nutrition] 1. Caribbean-wide die-off of black urchins Diadema antillarum leads to sea urchin-eating toadfishes in Panama seeking out different prey. Robertson 1987 [Photo]

splendid toadfish / Sanopus  splendidus: [photo courtesy] 1. photograph courtesy Anne Dupont, Florida. Dupont [Photo]

sargassum weed / Sargassum sp.: [diversity, seaweed] 1. one of many diverse Caribbean seaweeds. [Photo]

sargassum weed / Sargassum sp.: [edibility, herbivory, nutrition] 1. pervasive sargassum weed is not edible to most reef herbivores. [Video]

sargassum weed / Sargassum sp.: [edibility, herbivory, nutrition, secondary metabolite] 1. sargassum weed is not edible to most reef herbivores owing probably to its high content of defensive secondary metabolites. Martin-Smith 1992 [Photo]

midnight parrotfish / Scarus coelestinus: [reproduction] 1. colours do not differ in the different sexual stages. [Photo]

blue parrotfish / Scarus coeruleus: [behaviour, defense, hide] 1. hides at nighttime, feeds on seaweeds during daytime. [Photo]

blue parrotfish / Scarus coeruleus: [detritus, diet, nutrition] 1. likely ingest detritus as they scrape the coral rocks for algal food. [Photo]

blue parrotfish / Scarus coeruleus: [behaviour, parasitism, symbiosis] 1. is carrying a parasitic sharksucker Echeneis naucrates. [Video]

blue parrotfish / Scarus coeruleus: [video courtesy] 1. video courtesy Andy Stockbridge, Belize. Stockbridge [Video]

striped parrotfish / Scarus croicensis: [ciguatera, disease, toxicity, bleaching] 1. one of several herbivorous reef fishes in which outbreaks of ciguatera poisoning correlate well with extent of coral bleaching . [Photo]

striped parrotfish / Scarus croicensis: [diet, herbivore, nutrition] 1. eat algae. [Photo]

striped parrotfish / Scarus croicensis: [hermaphrodite, reproduction, sex change] 1. photograph of initial-phase individuals. Richards & Leis 1984 [Photo]

rainbow parrotfish / Scarus guacamaia: [conservation, map, refuge] 1. assessment of effectiveness of Hol Chan Reserve on overall abundance, size, and biomass of target fish species after 4yr of no fishing. Polunin & Roberts 1993 [Photo]

rainbow parrotfish / Scarus guacamaia: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Rod Bigelow, New York. Bigelow [Photo]

rainbow parrotfish / Scarus guacamaia: [conservation, map, marine protected area, refuge] 1. assessment of effectiveness of Hol Chan Reserve on overall abundance, size, and biomass of target fish species after 7yr of no fishing. Roberts & Polunin 1994 [Photo]

striped parrotfish / Scarus iserti: [experiment, predator] 1. records made of bitings by this species in Key Largo, Florida over a 10h period on several barrel sponges Xestospongia muta. 2. both juvenile and adults involved . Dunlap & Pawlik 1998 [Photo]

parrotfish / Scarus sp.: [morphology, predator, quiz] 1. part of a quiz relating to facial morphology of predatory fishes. [Photo]

princess parrotfish / Scarus taeniopterus: [adult, camouflage, coloration, juvenile] 1. photos comparing different colour patterns in the life stages. []

princess parrotfish / Scarus taeniopterus: [ciguatera, disease] 1. one of several species severely affected by ciguatera poisoning in the Florida Keys in the 1990s. Landsberg 1995 [Photo]

princess parrotfish / Scarus taeniopterus: [experiment, predator] 1. records made of bitings by this species in Key Largo, Florida over a 10h period on several barrel sponges Xestospongia muta. 2. both juvenile and adults involved . Dunlap & Pawlik 1998 [Photo]

princess parrotfish / Scarus taeniopterus: [diet, nutrition, predator] 1. views of it taking nips from a sponge, but mainly of algae growing on it. [Video]

princess parrotfish / Scarus taeniopterus: [feeding, nutrition] 1. views of parrotfishes feeding. [Video]

princess parrotfish / Scarus taeniopterus: [cleaning, client, symbiosis] 1. being cleaned by a juvenile bluehead wrasse Thalassoma bifasciatum cleaning a princess parrotfish Scarus taeniopterus. [Photo]

princess parrotfish / Scarus taeniopterus: [behaviour, cleaning, client, station] 1. client fishes often look goofy at a cleaning station. [Photo]

princess parrotfish / Scarus taeniopterus: [life cycle, reproduction, sex change] 1. photographs of different life stages. [Photo]

queen parrotfish / Scarus vetula: [coloration, reproduction, initial-phase] 1. photograph comparing coloration in initial- and terminal-phase stages. [Photo]

queen parrotfish / Scarus vetula: [coloration, reproduction, terminal-phase] 1. photographs comparing coloration in different life phases. [Photo]

queen parrotfish / Scarus vetula: [coloration, function] 1. bright colours on the eye may function to convey intraspecific signals. Thresher 1977 [Photo]

queen parrotfish / Scarus vetula: [feeding, overgrowth, alga] 1. parrotfishes play an important role in eating overgrowing algae from the reef. [Video]

queen parrotfish / Scarus vetula: [feeding] 1. the parrotfish eats coral polyps to gain the algal symbionts within. [Photo]

queen parrotfish / Scarus vetula: [defense, shoal] 1. the contrarily coloured queen parrotfish Scarus vetula within a shoal of blue tangs Acanthurus coeruleus is an immediate visual standout to a portential predator. [Photo]

queen parrotfish / Scarus vetula: [defense, predation, structure] 1. scraping activities not deterred by heavy calcareous skeleton of mound-coral prey. [Photo]

queen parrotfish / Scarus vetula: [diet, herbivory, nutrition] 1. assortment of herbivorous fishes. [Video]

queen parrotfish / Scarus vetula: [feeding, nutrition] 1. views of parrotfishes feeding. [Video]

queen parrotfish / Scarus vetula: [feeding, nutrition] 1. "bioerode" the reef through "scraping"-type feeding. [Photo]

queen parrotfish / Scarus vetula: [aggression, territory] 1. queen parrotfish faces a gauntlet of aggression from damselfishes in adjacent territories. [Video]

queen parrotfish / Scarus vetula: [defense, mucus] 1. one of 2 Scarus parrotfishes in the Caribbean that produces a mucous blanket for nighttime defense. 2. the princess parrotfish S. taeniopterus is the other. Sazima & Ferreira 2006 [Photo]

princess parrotfish / Scarus  taeniopterus: [defense, mucus] 1. one of 2 Scarus parrotfishes in the Caribbean that secretes a mucous blanket at night for defense. 2. the queen parrotfish S. vetula is the other. Sazima & Ferreira 2006 [Photo]

spotted scorpionfish / Scorpaena  plumieri: [behaviour, camouflage, coloration, morphology] 1. video points out that good camouflaging requires behaviour, morphology, as well as good coloration. [Video]

scorpionfish / Scorpaena  plumieri: [coloration, function, toxicity, warning, ecology] 1. well camouflaged ambush predator, but brightly coloured pectoral fins warn of toxicity. [Photo]

scorpionfish / Scorpaena  plumieri: [danger, spine, toxicity] 1. description of spine structurehttp://www.mousetrapmultimedia.com/virtualcoralreefdive. [Photo]

scorpionfish / Scorpaena  plumieri: [camouflage, danger, spine, toxicity] 1. demonstration of how well a scorpionfish is camouflaged in algae. [Video]

scorpionfish / Scorpaena  plumieri: [spine, toxicity, treatment] 1. recommended treatment for scorpionfish spine-stings. [Text only]

scorpionfish / Scorpaena  plumieri: [behaviour, camouflage] 1. strategic selection of a background is advantageous for all camouflage artists. [Photo]

scorpionfish / Scorpaena  plumieri: [ambush predator, camouflage] 1. a good camouflage is advantageous for an ambush predator. [Video]

spotted scorpionfish / Scorpaena  plumieri: [camouflage, colour, morphology] 1. in addition to colour and patterning, skin adornments may be involved . [Photo]

spotted scorpionfish / Scorpaena  plumieri: [photo courtesy] 1. photograph courtesy Anne Dupont, Florida. Dupont [Photo]

spotted scorpionfish / Scorpaena  plumieri: [ambush predator, camouflage] 1. view angle and perspective are important considerations for a prey fish trying to avoid being eaten by a camouflaged predator. [Photo]

spotted scorpionfish / Scorpaena  plumieri: [ambush predator, camouflage] 1. has toxic spines and warning coloration, and so is well suited with its excellent camouflage as an ambush predator that can attack from both concealed and open positions. [Photo]

spotted scorpionfish / Scorpaena  plumieri: [defense, spine] 1. description of spine defense . []

spotted scorpionfish / Scorpaena  plumieri: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Anne Dupont, Florida. [Photo]

spotted scorpionfish / Scorpaena  plumieri: [ambush predator, behaviour, nutrition] 1. description of attack behaviour. [Photo]

scorpionfish / Scorpaena  spp.: [mouth, nutrition, prey, allometry] 1. mouth sizes grow out of proportion to body size (i.e., allometric); eat variable-sized prey during their lifetimes. 2. eat relatively small prey when they are young, and relatively large prey when they are older. Karpouzi & Stergiou 2003 [Graph]

scorpionfish / Scorpaena  plumieri: [coloration, ecology, function, toxicity, warning] 1. brightly coloured pectoral fins warn of toxicity. [Video]

spotted scorpionfish / Scorpaena  plumieri: [diet, nutrition, predator] 1. ambush predator eating a variety of fish and invertebrate prey. Sierra et al. 2001 [Photo]

Sargasso nudibranch / Scyllaea pelagica: [coloration, defense, mimicry, morphology] 1. mimicry of sargassum weed on which the animal rests. [Photo]

Sargasso nudibranch / Scyllaea pelagica: [photo courtesy] 1. photographs courtesy Anne Dupont, Florida. Dupont [Photo]

Spanish lobster / Scyllarides aequinoctialis: [diversity] 1. an example of diversity of Caribbean crustaceans. [Photo]

Spanish lobster / Scyllarides aequinoctialis: [behaviour, defense, nocturnal] 1. nocturnal behaviour may minimise contact with potential predators. [Photo]

reef squid / Sepioteuthis sepioidea: [colour, eye, perception, vision] 1. quiz on comparative colour perception in a number of Caribbean reef animals. [Photo]

reef squid / Sepioteuthis sepioidea: [diversity] 1. example of diversity of Caribbean molluscs. [Photo]

reef squid / Sepioteuthis sepioides: [alarm, behaviour, defense, ink] 1. ink acts as a visual alarm cue for conspecifics. Wood et al. 2008 [Photo]

reef squid / Sepioteuthis  sepioidea: [diet, nutrition, predator] 1. eat primarily fishes. [Photo]

reef squid / Sepioteuthis  sepioidea: [photo courtesy] 1. photogaph courtesy George Lilly, Newfoundland. Lilly [Photo]

sea bass / Serranus  scriba: [mouth, nutrition, prey, allometry] 1. mouth sizes grow out of proportion to body size (i.e., allometric); eat variable-sized prey during their lifetimes. 2. eat relatively small prey when they are young, and relatively large prey when they are older; this is a Mediterranean species. Karpouzi & Stergiou 2003 [Graph]

harlequin bass / Serranus  tigrinus: [diversity] 1. swimming amongst mangrove roots. [Photo]

harlequin bass / Serranus  tigrinus: [diversity] 1. fishes swim amongst buttress roots of mangroves. [Video]

harlequin bass / Serranus  tigrinus: [nutrition, preference, prey] 1. chief determinant of type of prey selected is size of the grouper. 2. this small-sized grouper prefers tiny copepods in the plankton. Wainwright & Richard 1995 [Photo]

white pox disease / Serratia marcescens: [bacteria, disease] 1. bacterial disease in corals. 2. present in elkhorn corals Acropora palmata in St. John, US Virgin Islands. Rogers et al. [Photo]

hydroid / Sertularella speciosa: [diversity] 1. an example of hydrozoan relatives of Caribbean stony corals. [Photo]

stromatolite / Shizothrix sp.: [cyanobacteria, stromatolite] 1. example and explanation of growth of a stromatolite reef. Littler & Littler 2001 [Photo]

starlet coral / Siderastrea siderea: [growth, storms, survival] 1. several hurricanes over the past 80yr create a peculiar "punctuated" growth pattern. 2. shallow-water colonies in the Florida Keys. Precht & Precht 2015 [Photo]

starlet coral / Siderastrea sp.: [nutrition] 1. shows ciliary tracts in operation. [Photo]

starlet coral / Siderastrea sp.: [photo courtesy] 1. photographs courtesy John Lewis, McGill University, Montreal. Lewis [Photo]

starlet coral / Siderastrea sp.: [mucus, nutrition, quiz] 1. quiz relating to functions of mucus-net suspension-feeding . [Text only]

boring sponge / Siphonodictyon coralliphagum: [overgrowth, parasitism] 1. uses acid secretion to bore into host corals. 2. additionally, has superior overgrowth abilities. Diaz & Rutzler 2001 [Photo]

boring sponge / Siphonodictyon coralliphagum: [chemical, competition, overgrowth] 1. 3-way competition between this sponge, a mat tunicate Trididemnum solidum, and a boulder coral Montastrea cavernosa . [Photo]

boring sponge / Siphonodictyon coralliphagum: [competition, overgrowth] 1. "stand-off" competition with a mat tunicate Trididemnum solidum, both on a mound coral. 2. neither protagonist appears to have the advantage. [Photo]

boring sponge / Siphonodictyon coralliphagum: [competition, disease] 1. colonisation of boulder coral Montastrea sp. may have initiated disease, death of coral, and additional colonisation by red algae. [Photo]

sun star / Solaster stimpsoni: [behaviour, defense, nematocyst] 1. arms of sun star carefully avoid touching the nematocyst-laden tentacles of a cup coral Ballanophyllia elegans. [Photo]

stoplight parrotfish / Spa viride: [cartoon, predation] 1. cartoon showing a doctorfish and a surgeonfish discussing body wounds of a parrotfish patient. [Drawing]

redband parrotfish / Sparisoma aurofrenatum: [diet, herbivore] 1. diet consists of plant matter. [Photo]

redband parrotfish / Sparisoma aurofrenatum: [camouflage, coloration] 1. photo series showing that combinations of red, green, and blue act well to camouflage a fish in shallow reef habitat. [Photo]

redband parrotfish / Sparisoma aurofrenatum: [coloration, eye, function] 1. eye coloration may function as recognition cue within the species. [Photo]

redband parrotfish / Sparisoma aurofrenatum: [behaviour, defense, hide] 1. hides at nighttime, feeds on seaweeds during daytime. [Photo]

redband parrotfish / Sparisoma aurofrenatum: [photo courtesy] 1. photograph courtesy Linda Ianiello, Florida. Ianiello [Photo]

redband parrotfish / Sparisoma aurofrenatum: [experiment, predator] 1. records made of bitings by this species in Key Largo, Florida over a 10h period on several barrel sponges Xestospongia muta. Dunlap & Pawlik 1998 [Photo]

redband parrotfish / Sparisoma aurofrenatum: [diet, nutrition] 1. usually eat algae, but when sponges are experimentally excavated, they readily eat these new food types. Wulff 1997 [Photo]

redband parrotfish / Sparisoma aurofrenatum: [hermaphrodite, sex change] 1. photo of juveniles. Richards & Leis 1984 [Photo]

redband parrotfish / Sparisoma aurofrenatum: [hermaphrodite, life cycle, reproduction, sex change] 1. terminal-phase male. [Photo]

redtail parrotfish / Sparisoma chrysopterum: [alga, feeding, overgrowth] 1. parrotfishes play an important role in eating overgrowing algae from the reef. [Video]

redtail parrotfish / Sparisoma chrysopterum: [diet, nutrition, predator] 1. description of scraping jaws and faeces content. [Photo]

redtail parrotfish / Sparisoma chrysopterum: [diet, nutrition] 1. usually eat algae, but when sponges are experimentally excavated, they readily eat these new food types. Wulff 1997 [Photo]

redtail parrotfish / Sparisoma chrysopterum: [detritus, feces, nutrition] 1. parrotfish feces contribute greatly to the "load" of detritus. [Photo]

parrotfish / Sparisoma cretense: [mouth, nutrition, prey, allometry] 1. mouth size grows in direct proportion to body size (i.e., isometric); eats benthic algae. 2. a Mediterranean species. Karpouzi & Stergiou 2003 [Graph]

bucktooth parrotfish / Sparisoma radians: [diet, nutritional value, preference] 1. prefers seagrass blades covered in epiphytes. [Photo, Drawing]

parrotfish / Sparisoma sp.: [camouflage, coloration, juvenile] 1. video showing different colour patterns of adult and juvenile parrotfishes. [Video]

stoplight parrotfish / Sparisoma viride: [diet, herbivore] 1. diet consists of plant matter. [Photo]

stoplight parrotfish / Sparisoma viride: [camouflage, coloration, juvenile, adult] 1. comparison of adult and juvenile coloration patterns. [Photo]

stoplight parrotfish / Sparisoma viride: [camouflage, coloration] 1. photo series showing how green-coloured fishes are best camouflaged in areas just at or above the reef top. [Photo]

stoplight parrotfish / Sparisoma viride: [coloration, eye, function, juvenile] 1. eye coloration may function as recognition cue within the species. [Photo]

stoplight parrotfish / Sparisoma viride: [colour, creation, structural] 1. how green colour in fishes is created. [Photo, Video]

stoplight parrotfish / Sparisoma viride: [adult, coloration, function, juvenile] 1. what different functions could the different colours of initial- and terminal-phases have?. [Video]

stoplight parrotfish / Sparisoma viride: [adult, coloration, function, juvenile] 1. brighter colour pattern of mature terminal-phase males may be related to territoriality. [Photo]

stoplight parrotfish / Sparisoma viride: [adult, coloration, function, juvenile] 1. bright colours could attract the attention of predators. [Video]

stoplight parrotfish / Sparisoma viride: [sound] 1. example of sounds emitted from this species. [Photo]

stoplight parrotfish / Sparisoma viride: [diet, nutrition] 1. usually eat algae, but when sponges are experimentally excavated, they readily eat these new food types. Wulff 1997 [Photo]

stoplight parrotfish / Sparisoma viride: [] 1. severe bite wounds on back. [Photo]

stoplight parrotfish / Sparisoma viride: [predator, quiz] 1. quiz to identify most likely fish of the ones shown that may have caused the bite marks on the stoplight parrotfish. [Photo]

stoplight parrotfish / Sparisoma viride: [feeding, nutrition] 1. "bioerode" the reef through "excavation"-type feeding. [Photo]

stoplight parrotfish / Sparisoma viride: [description, feeding, nutrition] 1. comments on their feeding and digestion. [Video]

stoplight parrotfish / Sparisoma viride: [diet, nutrition, preference] 1. strong preference for turf algae in Bonaire. Bruggemann et al. 1994 [Photo, Graph]

stoplight parrotfish / Sparisoma viride: [feeding, feces] 1. nice view of rain of feces. [Video]

stoplight parrotfish / Sparisoma viride: [feeding, feces] 1. nice view of rain of feces. [Video]

stoplight parrotfish / Sparisoma viride: [description, feeding, feces] 1. stats on food consumed and feces produced. [Photo]

stoplight parrotfish / Sparisoma viride: [feces, nutrition, detritus] 1. rain of parrotfish feces contributes to sea-bottom detritus. [Video]

stoplight parrotfish / Sparisoma viride: [cleaner, symbiosis] 1. gets cleaned by an initial-phase bluehead wrasse Thalassoma bifasciatis and cleaner gobies Elacatinus sp.. [Photo]

stoplight parrotfish / Sparisoma viride: [cleaning, client, symbiosis] 1. being cleaned by a juvenile bluehead wrasse Thalassoma bifasciatum. [Photo]

stoplight parrotfish / Sparisoma viride: [behaviour, cleaning, client, station] 1. client fishes often look goofy at a cleaning station. [Photo]

stoplight parrotfish / Sparisoma viride: [behaviour, cleaner, client, station] 1. posing at a cleaner station does not always guarantee service. [Video]

stoplight parrotfish / Sparisoma viride: [competition, space, territory] 1. terminal males defend territories of up to 300 sq meters. Mumby & Wabnitz 2002 [Photo]

stoplight parrotfish / Sparisoma viride: [competition, space, territory] 1. gets nipped as it passes through the garden area of a yellowtail damselfish . [Video]

stoplight parrotfish / Sparisoma viride: [competition, space, territory] 1. gets nipped as it passes through a bicolor damselfish's garden. [Video]

stoplight parrotfish / Sparisoma viride: [aggression, behaviour] 1. snaps at a bicolour damselfish Stegastes partitus as it tries to nip the parrotfish. [Photo]

stoplight parrotfish / Sparisoma viride: [behaviour] 1. swimming through its territory. [Video]

stoplight parrotfish / Sparisoma viride: [life cycle, reproduction] 1. overview of reproductive cycle of parrotfishes. van Rooij & Videler 1992 [Photo]

stoplight parrotfish / Sparisoma viride: [life cycle, reproduction] 1. overview of reproductive cycle of parrotfishes. Mumby & Wabnitz 2002 [Photo]

stoplight parrotfish / Sparisoma viride: [colour, hermaphrodite, reproduction] 1. overview of life cycle and sex change. [Photo]

stoplight parrotfish / Sparisoma viride: [hermaphrodite, juvenile, life cycle, sex change] 1. description of development of a parrotfish. Richards & Leis 1984 [Photo, Drawing]

stoplight parrotfish / Sparisoma viride: [life cycle, sex change, harem] 1. initial-phase females are kept in an harem. [Photo]

stoplight parrotfish / Sparisoma viride: [coloration, hermaphrodite, reproduction, sex change] 1. series of photographs contrived to show what a sex change from female to male in a parrotfish might look like. [Photo]

stoplight parrotfish / Sparisoma viride: [feeding, hermaphrodite, initial-phase] 1. feeding . [Video]

stoplight parrotfish / Sparisoma viride: [behaviour, swimming, terminal-phase, territory] 1. terminal-phase male patrols its territory. [Video]

stoplight parrotfish / Sparisoma viride: [behaviour, feeding, swimming, time budget] 1. time-budget data for individuals in Jamaica. Hanley 1984 [Photo]

stoplight parrotfish / Sparisoma viride: [competition, food] 1. competitions for food and territories are interrelated. Bruggermann & Breeman 1992 [Photo, Graph]

stoplight parrotfish / Sparisoma viride: [aggression, behaviour, competition, food] 1. is bitten by a bicolour damselfish Stegastes partitus as it passes through the damselfish's garden. [Video]

stoplight parrotfish / Sparisoma viride: [competition, mate, territory] 1. comparison of territory sizes and harem sizes among 5 parrotfish species in Glover's Reef, Belize. Mumby & Wabnitz 2002 [Photo, Graph]

midnight parrotfish / Sparus coelestinus: [diet, herbivore] 1. diet consists of plant matter. [Photo]

bandtail puffer / Sphoeroides spengleri: [danger, toxicity] 1. views of this species on the reef. [Video]

bandtail puffer / Sphoeroides spengleri: [larva, reproduction] 1. larva bears resemblance to adult. Ontogeny & systematics of fishes vol. 1 [Photo, Drawing]

pufferfish / Sphoeroides spp.: [tetrodotoxin, toxicity] 1. greater potential toxicity in this genus of pufferfishes than in sharpnose puffers in the genus Canthigaster . Nunez-Vazquez et al. 2000 [Text only]

barracuda / Sphyraena barracuda: [diet, piscivore] 1. diet consists mainly of fishes and cephalopods. [Photo]

barracuda / Sphyraena barracuda: [aggression, coloration, mimicry] 1. hypothetical example of what is meant by aggressive mimicry. [Photo, Drawing]

barracuda / Sphyraena barracuda: [colour, eye, perception, vision] 1. quiz on comparative colour perception in a number of Caribbean reef animals. [Photo]

barracuda / Sphyraena barracuda: [colour, eye, perception, vision] 1. quiz on comparative colour perception in a number of Caribbean reef animals. [Photo]

barracuda / Sphyraena barracuda: [function, perception, ultraviolet, vision, communication] 1. differential abilities of reef fishes to perceive UV wavelengths may provide for an special type of clandestine communication between prey. Losey et al. 2003 [Photo]

great barracuda / Sphyraena barracuda: [bite] 1. video showing the biting end of a barracuda. [Video]

great barracuda / Sphyraena barracuda: [danger, poison, ciguatera] 1. one example of many large predators whose flesh may be toxic owing to sequestration of ciguatera toxins obtained from their prey fishes. [Photo]

barracuda / Sphyraena barracuda: [defense, escape] 1. one of the top daytime predators on the reef. [Video]

barracuda / Sphyraena barracuda: [video courtesy] 1. video courtesy Andy Stockbridge, Belize. Stockbridge [Video]

barracuda / Sphyraena barracuda: [morphology, predator, quiz] 1. part of a quiz relating to facial morphology of predatory fishes. [Photo]

great barracuda / Sphyraena barracuda: [diet, nutrition] 1. eat mainly fishes and cephalopods. Sierra et al. 2001 [Photo]

great barracuda / Sphyraena barracuda: [diet, nutrition, predator] 1. primarily eat fishes. 2. observations of the death of a "pet" Nassau grouper "Fred" in Cayman Brac. [Photo]

great barracuda / Sphyraena barracuda: [diet, nutrition, predator] 1. eat squids and octopuses, as well as fishes. [Photo]

great barracuda / Sphyraena barracuda: [client, symbiosis] 1. gets cleaned by cleaner gobies Elacatinus sp. and a juvenile Spanish hogfish Bodianus rufus. [Photo]

great barracuda / Sphyraena barracuda: [larva, reproduction] 1. larva bears resemblance to adult. Ontogeny & systematics of fishes vol. 1 1984 [Photo, Drawing]

Christmas tree worm / Spirobranchus giganteus: [coloration, induce confusion, polymorphism] 1. different colour morphs of a prey may confuse an attacking predator. [Photo]

Christmas tree worm / Spirobranchus giganteus: [diversity] 1. example of diversity of Caribbean worms. [Video]

Christmas tree worm / Spirobranchus giganteus: [coloration, function, warning] 1. a species with different colour morphs is not likely to be toxic; hence, colours are not warning. [Photo]

Christmas tree worm / Spirobranchus giganteus: [competition, space] 1. compete for habitat space with brain coral Diploria strigosa. [Photo]

Christmas tree worm / Spirobranchus giganteus: [protection] 1. in addition to pulling-in behaviour, has a calcareous operculum adorned with antlers for protection. [Photo]

Christmas tree worm / Spirobranchus giganteus: [diet, nutrition, phytoplankton] 1. eats phytoplankton along with other organic particles. [Photo]

Christmas tree worm / Spirobranchus giganteus: [symbiont] 1. it is behaving as a parasite when it embeds itself in a living coral. [Photo]

bacteria / Staphlococcus aureus: [chemical, defense, toxicity, terpenes] 1. extracts of terpenoid chemicals from green alga Halimeda have antibiotic properties against this "golden staph" bacterium. Paul 1985 [Photo]

yellowtail damselfish / Stegastes chrysurus: [aggression, behaviour, diet] 1. occupy, cultivate, and aggressively defend small gardens of algae. [Photo]

longfin damselfish / Stegastes diencaeus: [aggression, behaviour, diet] 1. occupy, cultivate, and aggressively defend small gardens of algae. [Photo]

longfin damselfish / Stegastes diencaeus: [] 1. view of its bushy garden. [Video]

longfin damselfish / Stegastes diencaeus: [video courtesy] 1. video courtesy Andy Stockbridge, Belize. Stockbridge [Video]

longfin damselfish / Stegastes diencaeus: [cleaning, client, station] 1. studies on interactions between damselfishes as clients and cleaner gobies that set up cleaning stations in a damselfish's territory. Whiteman et al. 2002 [Photo]

longfin damselfish / Stegastes diencaeus: [cleaning, client, station] 1. studies on interactions between damselfishes as clients and cleaner gobies that set up cleaning stations in a damselfish's territory. Whiteman et al. 2002 [Photo]

longfin damselfish / Stegastes dienceus: [aggression, herbivore, territory] 1. when its garden territory is mobbed by blue tangs Acanthurus coeruleus, food intake of individual tangs actually goes up with increasing numbers in their group. Foster 1985 [Photo, Graph]

dusky damselfish / Stegastes fuscus: [sound] 1. example of sounds emitted from this species. [Photo]

dusky damselfish / Stegastes fuscus: [aggression, diet, nutrition, biomass] 1. its garden may have greater biomass within than without. [Photo]

dusky damselfish / Stegastes fuscus: [aggression, space, territory] 1. nips at a queen parrotfish Scarus vetula as it passes through the damselfish's territory. [Video]

dusky damselfish / Stegastes fuscus: [aggression, competition, feeding, habitat] 1. in Panama are forced by competitively dominant 3-spot damselfishes Stegastes planifrons into the back-reef area where food conditions are less good. Cleveland 1998 [Photo, Drawing]

damselfish / Stegastes leucocostictus: [recruitment] 1. in St. Croix interfere with settlement of ocean surgeonfishes. Risk 1998 [Photo]

beaugregory damselfish / Stegastes leucostictus: [colour, perception] 1. may be able to distinguish up to 50 different species in territorial encounters. [Photo]

beaugregory damselfish / Stegastes leucostictus: [competition, space, territory] 1. in Jamaica, studies show that both male and female patrol their shared algal garden. Horne & Itzkowitz 1995 [Photo]

bicolour damselfish / Stegastes partitus: [aggression, behaviour, diet] 1. occupy, cultivate, and aggressively defend small gardens of algae. [Photo]

bicolour damselfish / Stegastes partitus: [competition, herbivory, nutrition] 1. do sea urchins and herbivorous fishes compete for the same food resources?. Foster 1985 [Photo]

bicolour damselfish / Stegastes partitus: [habitat] 1. shows an individual in a red sponge. [Video]

bicolour damselfish / Stegastes partitus: [recruitment] 1. study on reefs of Belize and Mexico shows little dispersal from spawning areas, thus casting doubts on whether establishment of marine reserves will work as planned. Chittaro & Hogan 2013 [Photo]

bicolour damselfish / Stegastes partitus: [behaviour] 1. review of sensory factors other than vision that might be important in settlement of larval fishes. Leis et al. 2003 [Photo]

bicolour damselfish / Stegastes partitus: [competition, space, territory] 1. pair defends an area of the reef. [Video]

bicolour damselfish / Stegastes partitus: [competition, space, territory] 1. nips a stoplight parrotfish as it passes through the damselfish's garden. [Video]

bicolour damselfish / Stegastes partitus: [aggregation, behaviour, competition, space] 1. gets nipped by a stoplight parrotfish that is itself being bothered by the damselfish. [Photo]

bicolour damselfish / Stegastes partitus: [aggression, competition, territory] 1. nips at a queen parrotfish Scarus vetula passing through its territory. [Video]

bicolour damselfish / Stegastes partitus: [aggression, behaviour, competition, food] 1. bites at a stoplight parrotfish Sparisoma viride as it passes through the damselfish's garden. [Photo]

three spot damselfish / Stegastes planifrons: [aggression, behaviour, diet] 1. occupy, cultivate, and aggressively defend small gardens of algae. [Photo]

three spot damselfish / Stegastes planifrons: [aggression, behaviour, diet, juvenile] 1. occupy, cultivate, and aggressively defend small gardens of algae. [Photo]

three spot damselfish / Stegastes planifrons: [adult, coloration, function, juvenile] 1. differently coloured life stages may reduce competition between them. [Photo]

three spot damselfish / Stegastes planifrons: [bleaching, ciguatera, disease, toxicity] 1. one of several herbivorous reef fishes in which outbreaks of ciguatera poisoning correlate well with extent of coral bleaching . [Photo]

three spot damselfish / Stegastes planifrons: [diet, herbivore, nutrition] 1. eat algae. [Photo]

three spot damselfish / Stegastes planifrons: [cleaning, client, station] 1. studies on interactions between damselfishes as clients and cleaner gobies that set up cleaning stations in a damselfish's territory. Arnal & Cote 1998 [Photo]

three spot damselfish / Stegastes planifrons: [cleaning, client, station] 1. studies on interactions between damselfishes as clients and cleaner gobies that set up cleaning stations in a damselfish's territory. Whiteman et al. 2002 [Photo]

three spot damselfish / Stegastes planifrons: [larva, metamorphosis, settlement] 1. larvae prefer to settle on living corals on reef slope. [Photo]

three spot damselfish / Stegastes planifrons: [behaviour, larva, metamorphosis, settlement] 1. overview of larval transformation to juvenile. [Photo, Drawing]

three spot damselfish / Stegastes planifrons: [juvenile] 1. juveniles undergoing transformation to adult. [Video]

three spot damselfish / Stegastes planifrons: [competition, space, territory] 1. assessment of costs and benefits to a male damselfish in having its own territory. [Photo]

three spot damselfish / Stegastes planifrons: [aggression, competition, food, habitat] 1. in Panama, force dusky damselfishes Stegastes fuscus away from good feeding areas on the reef slope into poorer food condition in the back-reef area. Cleveland 1998 [Photo, Drawing]

three spot damselfish / Stegastes planifrons: [aggression, competition, food] 1. a damselfish with its garden within the larger territory of a parrotfish must compete aggressively. [Photo]

bicolor damselfish / Stegastes  bipartitus: [conservation, invasive, predation] 1. removal-type experiments show that lionfishes reduce numbers of bicolor damselfishes , but not their genetic diversity. Palmer et al. 2016 [Photo]

banded coral shrimp / Stenopus hispidus: [diversity] 1. an example of diversity of Caribbean crustaceans. [Photo]

banded coral shrimp / Stenopus hispidus: [cleaner, coloration, function] 1. bright colours of cleaner shrimps have likely evolved as signals to their client fish. [Photo]

banded coral shrimp / Stenopus hispidus: [cleaner, habitat] 1. a pair is shown here inside a vase sponge Niphates digitalis, a temporary habitat. [Photo]

banded coral shrimp / Stenopus hispidus: [cleaning, client, symbiosis] 1. in the act of cleaning a spotted moray Gymnothorax moringa. [Photo]

banded coral shrimp / Stenopus hispidus: [behaviour, cleaner, habitat] 1. tend to roam freely around the reef, staying never too long in one spot. [Photo]

cleaner shrimp / Stenopus  hispidus: [cleaner] 1. in tests in St. Thomas, this species of purported crustacean cleaners was not observed to clean blue tangs Acanthurus coeruleus. McCammon et al. 2010 [Text only]

yellowline crab / Stenorhynchus seticornis: [diversity] 1. an example of diversity of Caribbean crustaceans. [Photo]

yellowline arrow crab / Stenorhynchus seticornis: [colour, function] 1. consideration of function of colour . [Video]

yellowline arrow crab / Stenorhynchus seticornis: [coloration, function] 1. what is the function of its bright colours?. [Photo]

yellowline arrow crab / Stenorhynchus seticornis: [behaviour, defense, protection] 1. crawl freely over the reef, including on the through the spines of long-spined sea urchins Diadema antillarum . [Photo]

yellowline arrow crab / Stenorhynchus seticornis: [commensal] 1. a quiz on which organism in the photograph is commensal with a corkscrew anemone Bartholomea annulata. [Photo]

yellowline arrow crab / Stenorhynchus seticornis: [symbiosis] 1. several photographs showing these crabs in and on sponges and other reef invertebrates. 2. often called commensals, but they appear to be too free-living to be so designated. [Photo]

yellowline arrow crab / Stenorhynchus seticornis: [habitat] 1. sitting in a vase sponge Callyspongia plicifera. [Photo]

yellowline arrow crab / Stenorhynchus seticornis: [habitat] 1. crawling on a black sea-urchin Diadema antillarum. [Photo]

arrow crab / Stenorhynchus seticornis: [commensal, symbiosis] 1. in areas around Grand Bahama Island is thought to be commensal with sea anemones Lebrunea danae, but more likely this relationship is just happenstance. Herrnkind et al. 1976 [Photo]

boulder star coral / Stephanocoenia intercepta: [fertilisation] 1. description of fertilised eggs being released from the tentacles rather than the mouth as would be expected. Vermeij et al. 2010 [Photo]

carpet anemone / Stichodactyla helianthus: [predation] 1. in areas of Glover's Reef, Belize are often eaten by bristleworms Hermodice carunculata. Lizama & Blanquet 1975 [Photo]

milk conch / Strombus costatus: [defense, shell, structure] 1. relies for defense on withdrawal and heavy shell. [Photo]

milk conch / Strombus costatus: [defense, structure] 1. shell is made stronger by discontinuous pattern of its crystal layering. Kamat et al. 2000 [Photo, Drawing]

milk conch / Strombus costatus: [behaviour, nutrition] 1. view of a pair sitting out on the sand. [Video]

milk conch / Strombus costatus: [nutrition, predation, protection] 1. list of protective features. Jory & Iversen 1983 [Photo]

milk conch / Strombus costatus: [herbivore, nutrition] 1. close view of eyes and proboscis. [Video]

milk conch / Strombus costatus: [eye, herbivore, nutrition] 1. close view of eyes and proboscis, the latter bearing the scraping radula. [Photo]

milk conch / Strombus costatus: [larva, reproduction] 1. larva is a veliger. [Photo, Drawing]

milk conch / Strombus costatus: [life cycle] 1. copulation leads to deposition of encapsulated eggs onto the substratum. [Photo]

queen conch / Strombus gigas: [diversity] 1. example of diversity of Caribbean molluscs. [Video]

queen conch / Strombus gigas: [diversity] 1. example of diversity of molluscs on Caribbean coral reefs. [Video]

queen conch / Strombus gigas: [defense, hide] 1. close view of conch safely within its shell. [Video]

queen conch / Strombus gigas: [video courtesy] 1. video courtesy Andy Stockbridge, Belize. Stockbridge [Video]

queen conch / Strombus gigas: [behaviour, defense] 1. details of life within the shell. [Photo]

queen conch / Strombus gigas: [predator] 1. long list of known predators, both on juveniles and adults. Iversen et al. 1986 [Video]

queen conch / Strombus gigas: [culture, overfishing] 1. overfishing of conchs throughout the Caribbean has led to active programmes of culture and restocking in many islands. Creswell & Davis 1991 [Photo]

queen conch / Strombus gigas: [larva, metamorphosis, settlement] 1. many herbivorous species of gastropods settle preferentially onto seaweed substrates that represent the first foods of the juveniles. Boettcher & Targett 1998 [Photo]

queen conch / Strombus gigas: [larva, metamorphosis, settlement] 1. larvae settle preferentially onto seaweeds that are used as food by the newly metamorphosed juvenile snails. Stoner et al. 1996 [Photo]

queen conch / Strombus gigas: [culture, description] 1. description of culture of queen conchs in the Turks & Caicos. [Photo]

queen conch / Strombus gigas: [behaviour, feeding] 1. feeding in the weeds. [Video]

queen conch / Strombus gigas: [larva, life cycle] 1. details of reproduction with schematic. Davis 1998 [Photo, Drawing]

queen conch / Strombus gigas: [photo courtesy] 1. photographs courtesy Megan Davis & Leroy Creswell. Davis & Creswell [Photo]

queen conch / Strombus gigas: [photo courtesy] 1. drawing of conch life cycle courtesy Bonnie Bower-Dennis. Bower-Dennis [Drawing]

queen conch / Strombus gigas: [larva, recruitment, dispersal] 1. recruitment in the Florida Keys depends on a supply of larvae carried in the Florida Current from the Gulf of Mexico. Lee & Williams 1999 [Drawing]

fighting conch / Strombus pugilis: [coloration, pigment, melanin] 1. colours created by melanin pigment and other metabolic by-products. [Photo]

fighting conch / Strombus pugilis: [defense, spine, structure] 1. shell has spines, not sharp, but perhaps creating handling difficulty for a potential predator. [Photo]

fighting conch / Strombus pugilis: [defense, spine, structure] 1. shell has spines, not sharp, but perhaps creating handling difficulty for a potential predator. [Photo]

conch / Strombus sp.: [diversity] 1. example of diversity of Caribbean molluscs. [Photo]

conch / Strombus sp.: [behaviour, locomotion] 1. view of locomotory behaviour of a conch. [Photo]

conch / Strombus sp.: [defense, shell, size refuge, structure] 1. grow to such large size that predators can no longer attack and eat them. 2. have reached a refuge in size. [Video]

conch / Strombus sp.: [diversity] 1. example of diversity of Caribbean molluscs. [Photo]

conch / Strombus spp.: [juvenile, predation] 1. description of potential predators of larvae and juveniles. D'Asaro 1965 [Photo, Drawing]

purple sea urchin / Strongylocentrotus purpuratus: [bite, pedicellaria] 1. shows how effective these small biting jaws are against a sea-star predator Pycnopodia helianthoides. [Photo]

rose lace-coral / Stylaster roseus: [diversity] 1. an example of a hydrozoan relative of Caribbean stony corals. [Photo]

rose lace coral / Stylaster roseus: [competition, overgrowth] 1. being overgrown by a red encrusting sponge Diplastrella sp. with little or no apparent resistance. [Photo]

rose lace coral / Stylaster sp.: [growth] 1. growth is by asexual budding. [Photo]

opisthobranch / Stylocheilus citrinus: [cyanobacteria, food, nutrition] 1. an Indo-Pacific cyanobacteriovore (eater of blue-green algae). Pennings et al. 2001 [Photo]

opisthobranch / Stylocheilus longicauda: [cyanobacteria, food, nutrition] 1. eats blue-green algae or cyanobacteria. Pennings et al. 2001 []

opisthobranch / Stylocheilus longicauda: [photo courtesy] 1. photograph courtesy Steve Pennings, University of Houston. Pennings [Photo]

brown seaweed / Stypopodium zonale: [chemical, defense, toxicity] 1. some seaweeds growing near to this toxic species may benefit from "derived" chemical protection. Hay 1991 [Photo]

dinoflagellate / Symbiodinium microadriaticum: [nutrition, photosynthesis, symbiont, zooxanthellae] 1. the zooxanthellae in giant clams include dinoflagellates Symbiodinium microadriaticum, the same as found in corals and sea anemones. [Photo]

zooxanthellae / Symbiodinium microadriaticum: [function, mutualism, photosynthesis, symbiosis] 1. explanation for how zooxanthellae contribute to the nutrition of their hosts. [Photo, Drawing]

zooxanthellae / Symbiodinium microadriaticum: [habitat] 1. inhabit the gastrodermal tissues in their hosts, that is, the gut tissues. [Photo]

zooxanthellae / Symbiodinium microadriaticum: [photo courtesy] 1. photograph courtesy Max Taylor, University of British Columbia. Taylor [Photo]

zooxanthellae / Symbiodinium microadriaticum: [photosynthesis, quiz, symbiosis, nutrient] 1. quiz on the source of nutrients to fuel photosyntheis in the symbiotic zooxanthellae. [Photo]

zooxanthellae / Symbiodinium microadriaticum: [mutualism, quiz, zooxanthellae] 1. benefit their hosts by contribution photosynthates (glycerol, sugars) to their hosts, but what are the benefits and costs to the symbionts?. Muller-Parker & D'Ella 1997 [Text only]

zooxanthellae / Symbiodinium microadriaticum: [mutualism, quiz, symbiont, zooxanthellae, taxonomy] 1. rather than being just a single species, now thought to be several related species. Blank & Trench 1985 [Photo, Text only]

zooxanthellae / Symbiodinium microadriaticum: [description] 1. description of how the zooxanthellae become established in a coral. 2. occurs at the egg stage. Hirose et al. 2001 [Drawing]

zooxanthellae / Symbiodinium microadriaticum: [description, larva, symbiosis, zooxanthellae] 1. zooxanathellae infect the egg and, later, the planula larva. 2. such larvae are known as "xooxanthellate". [Drawing]

zooxanthellae / Symbiodinium microadriaticum: [description, larva, symbiosis, zooxanthellae] 1. zooxanthellate larvae, that is, containing the symbionts, can distribute further than larvae of some corals that are "non-zooxanthellate". Richmond 1981 [Drawing]

sand diver / Synodus  intermedius: [defense, predator] 1. camouflage may be for defense or for disguising yourself from your prey. [Photo]

sand diver / Synodus  intermedius: [photo courtesy, predator] 1. photograph courtesy Anne Dupont, Florida. Dupont [Photo]

sand diver / Synodus  intermedius: [morphology, predator] 1. introductory video to topic of common features of a predatory fish. [Video]

sand diver lizardfish / Synodus  intermedius: [ambush predator, behaviour, diet, nutrition] 1. statistics on diet and hunting success. [Photo]

sand diver lizardfish / Synodus  intermedius: [photo courtesy] 1. photograph courtesy Anne Dupont, Florida. Dupont [Photo]

sand diver / Synodus  intermedius: [diet, nutrition] 1. eat octopuses and squids. [Photo]

bluestriped lizardfish / Synodus  saurus: [cleaning, client, symbiosis] 1. being cleaned by cleaner gobies Elacatinus sp.. [Photo]

bluestriped lizardfish / Synodus  saurus: [photo courtesy] 1. photograph courtesy Anne Dupont, Florida. Dupont [Photo]

lizardfish / Synodus  spp.: [mouth, nutrition, prey, allometry] 1. mouth sizes grow out of proportion to body size (i.e., allometric); eat variable-sized prey during their lifetimes. 2. eat relatively small prey when they are young, and relatively large prey when they are older. Karpouzi & Stergiou 2003 [Graph]

flame auger / Terebra taurinus: [coloration, melanin, pigment] 1. colour derive from pigments and other metabolic materials. [Photo]

flame auger / Terebra taurinus: [defense, predation] 1. consideration of which predatory reef organisms might be able break through its shell defenses. [Photo]

flame auger / Terebra taurinus: [behaviour, nocturnal] 1. tend to be nocturnally active and buried during the daytime. [Drawing]

turtle grass / Thalassia testudinum: [diversity, seaweed] 1. one of several Caribbean sea grasses. [Photo]

turtle seagrass / Thalassia testudinum: [photosynthesis] 1. important agent, along with seaweeds, of primary productivity in and around Caribbean reefs. [Video]

seagrass / Thalassia testudinum: [herbivory, nutritional value] 1. herbivores often just eat the plants growing epiphytically on the seagrass blades. [Text only]

turtle grass / Thalassia testudinum: [diet, experiment, nutritional value, preference] 1. third most preferred algal food for bucktooth parrotfishes in St. Croix is seagrass blades without epiphytes . [Photo, Drawing]

turtle grass / Thalassia testudinum: [herbivory] 1. eaten away by herbivorous reef fishes around patch reefs to form halos. Randall 1965 [Photo]

seagrass / Thalassia testudinum: [growth, nutrition, photosynthesis] 1. because of their reliance on red wavelengths for photosynthesis, these seagrasses grow best in shallow water. [Photo]

bluehead wrasse / Thalassoma bifasciatum: [camouflage, counter-shading] 1. photograph showing counter-shading. []

bluehead wrasse / Thalassoma bifasciatum: [reproduction] 1. photograph of a terminal male with a possible mating female. [Photo]

bluehead wrasse / Thalassoma bifasciatum: [aggression, coloration, mimicry] 1. cartoon showing two wrasses making fun of a trumpetfish Aulostomus maculatus mimicking the blue-head coloration of a pair of blue tangs Acanthurus coeruleus. [Photo, Drawing]

bluehead wrasse / Thalassoma bifasciatum: [aggression, behaviour, camouflage, mimicry] 1. possible example of aggressive mimicry. 2. wrasse blennies Hemiemblemaria simulus mimic cleaning behaviour and coloration of initial-stage bluehead wrasses in order to take bites from the "client" fishes. [Photo]

bluehead wrasse / Thalassoma bifasciatum: [aggression, mimicry, social] 1. discussion of whether the similarity between wrasse blennies Hemiemblemaria simullus and initial-stage bluehead wrasses Thalassoma bifasciatum is really an example of aggressive mimicry. 2. alternatively, it could be an example of social mimicry. [Photo]

bluehead wrasse / Thalassoma bifasciatum: [photo courtesy] 1. photograph courtesy J. Adams & D. Robertson. Adams & Robertson [Photo]

bluehead wrasse / Thalassoma bifasciatum: [camouflage, function, pattern] 1. possible function of colours and colour patterns in Hawai'ian fishes. Marshall et al. 2003 [Photo]

bluehead wrasse / Thalassoma bifasciatum: [function, ultraviolet, vision, species recognition] 1. ability to see ultraviolet wavelengths might provide information on species identity. Marshall et al. 2003 [Photo]

bluehead wrasse / Thalassoma bifasciatum: [] 1. view of all life stages in one photograph. [Photo]

bluehead wrasse / Thalassoma bifasciatum: [colour, function, initial-phase, terminal-phase, male] 1. view of all life stages in one photograph. [Photo]

bluehead wrasse / Thalassoma bifasciatum: [colour, function, initial-phase, terminal-phase] 1. blue/green colours of terminal-phase male transmits well through seawater. [Photo]

bluehead wrasse / Thalassoma bifasciatum: [defense, experiment, toxicity] 1. feeding by wrasses Thalassoma bifasciatum is mostly deterred when test pellets contain extracts from 71 species of Caribbean sponges. Pawlik 1995 [Text only]

bluehead wrasse / Thalassoma bifasciatum: [chemical, defense, experiment] 1. prostaglandin defenses in gorgonians deter feeding by wrasses and yellowtail snappers Ocyurus chrysurus . Pawlik & Fenical 1992 [Photo, Drawing]

bluehead wrasse / Thalassoma bifasciatum: [alarm, chemical, school] 1. the integrity of shoals and schools is maintained or disrupted by sight, vibration sensors, and alarm chemicals, the last released under stress. [Photo]

bluehead wrasse / Thalassoma bifasciatum: [defense, nutritional value, spine, structure] 1. used in experiment to test the susceptibility of different brittle stars to being eaten. Aronson 1988 [Photo]

bluehead wrasse / Thalassoma bifasciatum: [defense, experiment, palatability, spicule] 1. experiments using spicules from various sponges incorporated into food pellets shows no evident diminution of consumption by the fish. Chanas & Pawlik 1995 [Photo, Graph]

bluehead wrasse / Thalassoma bifasciatum: [diet, nutrition, predator] 1. diet consists of a variety of invertebrate prey including, when available, flesh of sea urchins. Dupont [Photo]

bluehead wrasse / Thalassoma bifasciatum: [diet, nutrition] 1. in the Florida Keys and Dry Tortugas diet comprises mainly arthropods. [Photo, Graph]

bluehead wrasse / Thalassoma bifasciatum: [cleaner, cleaning, juvenile, symbiosis] 1. cleaning a stoplight parrotfish Sparisoma viride . [Photo]

bluehead wrasse / Thalassoma bifasciatum: [cleaner, cleaning, juvenile, symbiosis] 1. cleaning a princess parrotfish Scarus taeniopterus. [Photo]

bluehead wrasse / Thalassoma bifasciatum: [cleaning, client, juvenile, symbiosis] 1. cleaning a queen angelfish Holacanthus ciliaris . [Photo]

bluehead wrasse / Thalassoma bifasciatum: [cleaning, client, juvenile, symbiosis] 1. cleaning several sergeant majors Abudefduf saxatilis . [Photo]

bluehead wrasse / Thalassoma bifasciatum: [diet] 1. present data on diets of different cleaner fishes in Puerto Rico and elsewhere. Losey 1974 [Photo]

bluehead wrasse / Thalassoma bifasciatum: [diet] 1. presents data on diets of different cleaner fishes in Puerto Rico and elsewhere. 2. diet consists mostly of parasitic isopods and copepods. Grutter 1996 [Photo]

bluehead wrasse / Thalassoma bifasciatum: [cartoon] 1. the wrasses discuss whether a sponge zoanthid, with its polyps interspersed around the sponge's inhalent openings, is robbing the sponge of food particles and perhaps oxygenated water. [Drawing]

bluehead wrasse / Thalassoma bifasciatum: [larva, reproduction] 1. larva bears resemblance to adult. Ontogeny & systematics of fishes vol. 1 1984 [Photo, Drawing]

bluehead wrasse / Thalassoma bifasciatum: [description, life cycle] 1. description of life cycle. [Photo]

bluehead wrasse / Thalassoma bifasciatum: [behaviour, spawn] 1. view of wrasses swimming actively. [Video]

bluehead wrasse / Thalassoma bifasciatum: [behaviour, spawn] 1. use of fluorescent dyes to determine best spawning time. Hensley et al. 1994 [Drawing]

bluehead wrasse / Thalassoma bifasciatum: [behaviour, spawn] 1. study of spawning behavioour. Appledorn et al. 1994 []

bluehead wrasse / Thalassoma bifasciatum: [aggregation, behaviour, mate] 1. migrate to spawning aggregations. Warner 1995 [Photo]

bluehead wrasse / Thalassoma bifasciatum: [spawn, fertilisation] 1. 95% fertilisation success in St. Croix. Petersen et al. 2001 [Photo]

bluehead wrasse / Thalassoma bifasciatum: [mate] 1. estimates of lifetime mating freqencies. Warner 1984 [Photo]

bluehead wrasse / Thalassoma bifasciatum: [behaviour, cartoon, fertilisation, mate, spawn] 1. fisheries scientist discusses spawning behaviour with a bluehead wrasse. Petersen et al. 2001 [Drawing]

bluehead wrasse / Thalassoma bifasciatum: [behaviour, experiment, predator, spawn] 1. experiments to determine if presence of a predator speeds up or slows down the mating process. Warner & Dill 2000 [Photo, Graph]

bluehead wrasse / Thalassoma bifasciatum: [behaviour, competition, mate] 1. a terminal-phase male busy with hi potential mates. [Video]

bluehead wrasse / Thalassoma bifasciatum: [competition, sexual, transformation] 1. image showing transformation of sex from female to male. DeLoach 1999 [Photo]

bluehead wrasse / Thalassoma bifasciatum: [behaviour, competition, mate, spawn] 1. aspects of sexual behaviour. DeLoach 1999 [Photo]

bluehead wrasse / Thalassoma bifasciatum: [sexual, transformation] 1. details of sexual transformation. Warner & Swearer 1991 [Photo]

bluehead wrasse / Thalassoma bifasciatum: [sexual, transformation] 1. details of sexual transformation. Warner & Swearer 1991 [Photo]

bluehead wrasse / Thalassoma bifasciatum: [colour, hermaphrodite, life cycle] 1. overview of life cycle. [Photo]

bluehead wrasse / Thalassoma bifasciatum: [behaviour, cleaner, client, juvenile] 1. large sampling of cleaners and client fishes in St. Croix. 2. creole wrasses Clepticus parrae often cleaned by juvenile bluehead wrasses. Johnson & Ruben 1988 [Photo]

bluehead wrasse / Thalassoma bifasciatus: [cleaner, symbiosis] 1. clean a stoplight parrotfish Sparisoma viride. [Photo]

cleaner wrasse / Thalassoma  roronhanum: [cleaner, cleaning] 1. documentation of octopus being cleaned by cleaner goby Elacatinus randalli and cleaner wrasse Thalassoma noronhanum. Sazima et al. 2004 [Photo]

squat anemone shrimp / Thor ambinensis: [colour, function] 1. function of bright colours not clear . [Photo]

squat anemone shrimp / Thor amboinensis: [mutualism, symbiosis] 1. lives within the tentacle protection of giant anemones Condylactis gigantea. []

squat anemone shrimp / Thor amboinensis: [mutualism, symbiont] 1. when the shrimps inhabit giant sea anemones Condylactis gigantea, are the shrimps possibly benefitting the host in some way?. 2. mutualism?. []

permit / Trachinotus  falcatus: [swimming] 1. swim over reef. [Video]

permit / Trachinotus  falcatus: [behaviour, nutrition, swimming] 1. pair swimming across the reef. [Video]

permit / Trachinotus  falcatus: [video courtesy] 1. video courtesy Andy Stockbridge, Belize. Stockbridge [Video]

jack mackerel / Trachurus symmetricus: [life cycle, spawn] 1. development is similar to that of most coral-reef fishes. Kendall et al. 1984 [Drawing]

Indo-Pacific crab / Trapezia sp: [mutualism, symbiosis] 1. lives within the tentacle protection of various corals; bites at fishes that come by to nip at the coral's polyps. [Text only]

giant clam / Tridacna gigas: [nutrition, photosynthesis, symbiont, zooxanthellae] 1. zooxanthellae symbionts inhabit extensions of the gut that extend to the areas of mantle exposed to sunlight, and there they continue to photosynthesise and provide nutrients to the host. [Photo]

giant clam / Tridacna maxima: [nutrition, photosynthesis, symbiont, zooxanthellae] 1. gut tissues contain algal symbionts known as zooxanthellae, whose photosynthesis provides energy and nutrients. [Photo]

giant clam / Tridacna maxima: [bleaching, nutrition, symbiont, zooxanthellae, culture] 1. in the dark a clam will lose its symbiotic zooxanthellae and become bleached, just like a coral. [Photo]

giant clam / Tridacna sp.: [conservation, culture, survival] 1. views of giant-clam culture in Palau, Micronesia. []

giant clam / Tridacna spp.: [nutrition, culture] 1. giant clams are easily mass-cultured because with their photosynthesising symbionts, they need no extra food than what is present in seawater. [Photo]

mat tunicate / Trididemnum solidum: [competition, overgrowth] 1. part of a 3-way competition for space with a red boring sponge Cliona sp. and a mound coral. [Photo]

mat tunicate / Trididemnum solidum: [chemical, competition, overgrowth] 1. 3-way competition between this tunicate, boring sponges Siphonodictyon coralliphagum, and a boulder coral Montastrea cavernosa . [Photo]

mat tunicate / Trididemnum solidum: [competition, overgrowth] 1. views of this aggressive overgrowth competitor in action. [Video]

mat tunicate / Trididemnum solidum: [competition, overgrowth] 1. overgrows a sponge. [Photo]

mat tunicate / Trididemnum solidum: [competition, overgrowth] 1. "stand-off" competition with a boring sponge Siphonodictyon coralliphagum, both on a mound coral. 2. neither protagonist appears to have the advantage. [Photo]

mat tunicate / Trididemnum solidum: [competition, overgrowth] 1. several photographs showing the superior overgrowth capabilities of this species of tunicate. [Photo]

mat tunicate / Trididemnum solidum: [defense, poison] 1. may have toxic flesh for defense. [Photo]

tunicate / Trididemnum solidum: [feeding, nutrition, water flow, bacteria] 1. bacteria comprise about 50% of food eaten in Curacao. Bak et al. 1998 [Photo]

tunicate / Trididemnum solidum: [competition, overgrowth] 1. overgrowing a mound coral Montastrea sp.. [Photo]

mat tunicate / Trididemnum solidum: [nutrition, photosynthesis, symbiont] 1. rely on photosynthate products from symbionts for part of their nutrition. [Video]

mat tunicate / Trididemnum solidum: [nutrition, photosynthesis, symbiont] 1. rely on photosynthate products from symbionts for part of their nutrition. [Photo]

mat tunicate / Trididemnum solidum: [competition, overgrowth] 1. overgrows corals and fire corals to a greater degree at depth. Sommers et al. 2010 [Photo]

sea urchin / Tripneustes ventricosus: [bite, defense, pedicellaria] 1. description of action of these small biting jaws. 2. Caribbean species are not dangerous to humans. [Photo, Drawing]

Barbados sea egg / Tripneustes ventricosus: [nutrition] 1. eats seagrasses and algae growing on and around them. [Photo]

Barbados sea egg / Tripneustes ventricosus: [growth, nutrition] 1. growth is comparatively poor on a diet of seagrasses. Lilly 1975 [Photo, Graph]

Barbados sea egg / Tripneustes ventricosus: [growth, nutrition, quiz] 1. possible explanation for why growth is comparatively poor on a diet of seagrasses. [Photo, Text only]

Barbados sea egg / Tripneustes ventricosus: [camouflage, defense] 1. often have bits of things attached to themselves. [Video]

Barbados sea egg / Tripneustes ventricosus: [alga, herbivory, nutrition, mortalilty] 1. recovery in 1996 after mass Caribbean-wide die-off of urchins in 1983-84 leads to speeding removal of macroalgae. Aronson & Precht 2000 [Photo]

sea egg urchin / Tripneustes ventricosus: [larva, reproduction] 1. several pluteus larval stages: 2-arm, 4-arm, 8-arm, then settles to the sea bottom. [Photo, Drawing]

sea egg / Tripneustes  ventricosus: [diversity] 1. example of the diversity of Caribbean echinoderms. [Photo]

sea egg / Tripneustes  ventricosus: [diversity] 1. example of diversity of Caribbean echinoderms. [Video]

orange cup coral / Tubastraea coccinea: [nutrition, predation] 1. a polyp of orange cup-coral Tubastraea coccinea is eaten by a bearded fireworm Hermodice carunculata. Wolf & Nugues 2013 [Photo]

orange cup coral / Tubastraea coccinea: [nutrition, symbiosis, zooxanthellae] 1. lacks zooxanthellae; hence, must capture significantly more particulate food material than other "zooxanthellate" species. Wilkinson et al. 1988 [Photo]

orange cup coral / tubastrea coccinea: [competition, growth, overgrowth] 1. adaptive growth strategy in face of potential overgrowth competitor. Vermeij 2005 [Photo]

brown alga / Turbinaria sp.: [quiz] 1. an example of what Jamaican SCUBA-divers and snorkelers LEAST want to see on their excursions. [Photo]

turbinaria / Turbinaria spp.: [edibility, structure] 1. ranked 4th "most herbivore-edible" of 6 Caribbean algal species . 2. tough, leathery, with spine-like edges on fronds. [Photo]

turbinaria / Turbinaria turbinata: [diversity, seaweed] 1. one of many diverse Caribbean seaweeds. [Photo]

brown alga / Turbinaria turbinata: [growth, photosynthesis, pigment] 1. although brown algae use a broad range of wavelengths for , they do so less efficiently than red algae; hence, live shallower. [Graph]

bottlenose dolphin / Tursiops truncatus: [camouflage, coloration, counter-shading] 1. video of dolphins and turtles, showing counter-shading. [Video]

bottlenose dolphin / Tursiops truncatus: [diversity] 1. example of diversity of Caribbean sharks, rays, and marine mammals. [Video]

bottlenose dolphin / Tursiops truncatus: [defense, echo-location] 1. may be able to distinguish their own predators as well as prey by echo-locatory means. Harley et al. 2003 [Photo, Drawing]

bottlenose dolphin / Tursiops truncatus: [diet, nutrition] 1. comments on prey capture by echolocation. [Video]

bottlenose dolphin / Tursiops truncatus: [video courtesy] 1. video courtesy Andy Stockbridge, Belize. Stockbridge [Video]

bottlenose dolphin / Tursiops truncatus: [diet, nutrition] 1. dietary preferences of populations in the Mediterranean Sea. Blanco et al. 2001 [Graph]

bottlenose dolphin / Tursiops truncatus: [experiment, peril, recreation] 1. resorts and other facilities that offer "bonding" with dolphins can be causing stress-related symptoms in the dolphins. [Photo]

bottlenose dolphin / Tursiops truncatus: [video courtesy] 1. video courtesy Andy Stockbridge, Belize. Stockbridge [Video]

bottlenose dolphin / Tursiops truncatus: [predator] 1. in Belize may prey upon large spawning aggregations of mutton snappers Litjanus analis. Graham & Castellanos 2012 [Photo]

fiddler crab / Uca sp.: [bite, defense] 1. males havae extra-large claws for aggressive behaviour. [Photo]

sea lettuce / Ulva sp.: [diversity, seaweed] 1. one of many diverse Caribbean seaweeds. [Photo]

sea lettuce / Ulva spp.: [edibility, structure] 1. ranked first "most herbivore-edible" of 6 Caribbean algal species . 2. membranous, soft, thin. Littler et al. 1983 [Photo]

cleaner shrimp / unident. : [behaviour, colour, function] 1. colorful Indo-Pacific cleaner shrimp tends to a moray eel. Cheney et al. 2008 [Photo]

tunicate / unident. : [coloration, function, toxicity, warning] 1. bright colours may warn of toxicity. 2. research needed on this subject. [Photo]

red encrusting sponge / unident. : [chemical, competition] 1. red sponge competes chemically with a fan gorgonian Gorgonia sp.. [Photo]

polyp / unident. : [aggression, feeding, nematocyst, acontia] 1. comment about mesenterial filaments (acontia) being visible by eye in the gut cavity of certain cnidarians (sea anemones, gorgonians). [Photo]

green alga / unident. : [competition, overgrowth, disease] 1. algae overgrowing wound-spots on other organisms appear as a disease. [Photo]

red alga / unident. : [competition, overgrowth, disease] 1. algae overgrowing wound-spots on other organisms, such as this barrel sponge Xestospongia muta, appear as a disease. [Photo]

mound coral / unident. : [competition, overgrowth] 1. part of a 3-way competition for space with a mat tunicate Trididemnum solidum and a red boring-sponge Cliona sp.. [Photo]

crab / unident. : [bite, danger, autotomy] 1. shows a small crab being held by one of its legs. [Video]

crab / unident. : [camouflage, defense] 1. uses old clam shell as a covering shield. [Photo]

cephalopod / unident. : [defense, smokescreen] 1. video shows ink after its release from some unidentified squid or octopus. [Video]

pufferfish / unident. : [camouflage, chemical] 1. nighttime resting in a self-fashioned mucous cocoon may provide chemical protection against night-hunting predators. [Photo]

parrotfish / unident. : [camouflage, chemical] 1. discusses the function of its mucous cocoon with an interested (and hungry) squirrelfish. [Drawing]

squirrelfish / unident. : [camouflage, cartoon, chemical] 1. discusses with a parrotfish the function of the latter's mucous cocoon . [Drawing]

pufferfish / unident. : [photo courtesy] 1. photograph of a pufferfish in its protective cocoon courtesy Linda Ianiello, Florida. Ianiello [Photo]

worm snail / unident. : [mucus] 1. video showing the mucous "fishing line" set out by a worm snail. [Video]

gorgonian / unident. : [defense, toxicity] 1. views of drably coloured reef organisms that may have toxic flesh. [Video]

sponge / unident. : [defense, toxicity, spicule] 1. some sponges may be protected by both spicules and toxic flesh. [Video]

sponge / unident. : [defense, experiment, toxicity] 1. extracts of 71 species of sponges mostly deter feeding by wrasses Thalassoma bifasciatum. 2. warning coloration does not seem to be involved. Pawlik 1995 [Text only]

tube sponge / unident. : [chemical, defense, toxicity] 1. chemical defenses are important to sponges. [Photo]

gorgonian / unident. : [chemical, defense, toxicity, prostaglandins] 1. many species contain toxic chemicals (prostaglandins) but are still eaten by flamingo-tongue shells Cyphoma gibbosum. 2. also Vrolijk & Targett 1992 Mar Ecol Progr Ser 88: 237. Gerhart 1986 []

gorgonian / unident. : [chemical, defense, prostaglandins] 1. prostaglandin defenses deter feeding by yellowtail snappers Ocyurus chrysurus and bluehead wrasses Thalassoma bifasciatum. Pawlik & Fenical 1992 [Photo, Drawing]

shiner / unident. : [defense, shoal] 1. both shoaling and schooling enhance the collective vigilance of fishes. [Photo]

school / unident. : [defense, school] 1. function of schooling in defense. [Photo]

school / unident. : [video courtesy] 1. function of schooling in defense. []

shiner / unident. : [defense, school] 1. an attacking predator keys in on odd appearances or odd behaviours in school-members. [Photo]

shark / unident. : [defense, quiz, school] 1. mixed school of fishes appear to be following a shark...what is going on?. [Photo]

silverside / unident. : [colour, defense, iridophore, reflection] 1. changing reflectivity of a school adds another dimension to confusing a predator. [Photo]

pufferfish / unident. : [defense, poison] 1. pufferfishes have toxic livers, skin, and gonads. [Video]

wrasse / unident. : [behaviour, defense] 1. associate with superior defense; namely, giant sea anemone Condylactis gigantea. [Video]

sponge / unident. : [chemical, defense, spicule] 1. sponges may be doubly protected by spicules and chemicals. [Video]

sponge / unident. : [video courtesy] 1. video courtesy Andy Stockbridge, Belize. Stockbridge [Video]

sponge brittle star / unident. : [defense, spine] 1. at least one Caribbean species associates with sponges. Could this be a mutualistic association?. [Video]

sponge brittle star / unident. : [defense, spine] 1. at least one Caribbean species associates with sponges. Could this be a mutualistic association?. [Video]

sponge / unident. : [defense, spicule, structure] 1. close view of spicules within sponge. [Photo]

parrotfish / unident. : [carnivory, nutrition] 1. video shows scraping marks made by parrotfishes on the coral. [Video]

gorgonian / unident. : [diet, nutrition] 1. gorgonians primarily eat zooplankton. [Photo]

hemichordate / unident. : [bioturbation, feces, nutrition] 1. feces contribute to bio-enrichment of the soil. [Photo]

polychaete larva / unident. : [diet, nutrition, phytoplankton] 1. one of several examples of invertebrate larvae that eat phytoplankton. [Photo]

nauplius larva / unident. : [diet, nutrition, phytoplankton] 1. this barnacle nauplius is one of several examples of invertebrate larvae that eat phytoplankton. [Photo]

bipinnaria larva / unident. : [diet, nutrition, phytoplankton] 1. this sea-star bipinnaria is one of several examples of invertebrate larvae that eat phytoplankton. [Photo]

auricularia larva / unident. : [diet, nutrition, phytoplankton] 1. this sea-cucumber auricularia is one of several examples of invertebrate larvae that eat phytoplankton. [Photo]

pluteus larva / unident. : [diet, nutrition, phytoplankton] 1. this sea-urchin pluteus is one of several examples of invertebrate larvae that eat phytoplankton. [Photo]

gorgonian / unident. : [description, digestion, feeding] 1. description of feeding and digestion. [Photo]

sponge / unident. : [symbiosis] 1. a quiz on what symbiotic relationships are evident in a photograph featuring a frond oyster, a sponge, a fire coral, and a sea-rod gorgonian. [Photo]

sea cucumber / unident. : [parasitism] 1. a quiz to identify what is in the photograph...it's an anus of an Indo-Pacific sea cucumber, with a goby fish living in a pore in its skin. [Photo]

sponge / unident. : [disease] 1. photo shows possible disease-causing growth of red alga. [Photo]

green alga / unident. : [ecology, overfishing, overgrowth] 1. overfishing of herbivorous fishes, snails, and sea urchins combined with nutrient enrichment can lead to unwanted ecosystem changes. [Photo]

snail / unident. : [overfishing, survival] 1. shell-collectors and tourist shell-industries threaten survival of populations of desirable shells the world over. [Photo]

sponge / unident. : [peril] 1. recreational use of reefs by divers and snorkelers inevitably takes a toll on the health of reefs. [Photo]

comb jelly / unident. aurita: [camouflage, defense, transparency] 1. transparency is a camouflaging tactic in comb jellies (ctenophores). [Photo]

zoanthid / unident. florida: [carnivory, nutrition, predation] 1. in the Dominican Republic are eaten by hawksbill turtles Eretmochelys imbricata. Leon & Bjorndal 2002 [Photo]

jellyfish / unident. sp.: [diet, nutrition] 1. eats zooplankters, possibly including small fishes. [Photo]

red sponge / unident. sp.: [symbiosis] 1. a quiz to identify what symbiotic relationships are evident in a photograph featuring a crinoid Davidaster sp., a sponge Mycale laevis, a red sponge, and a sea-rod gorgonian, all growing on a boulder coral Montastrea sp.. [Photo]

black ball sponge / Urcinia strobilina: [life cycle, reproduction] 1. details of breeding season, gamete release, and so on. Hoppe 1988 [Photo]

black ball sponge / Urcinia strobilina: [photo courtesy] 1. photograph courtesy Geoff Schultz, U.S.. Schultz [Photo]

yellow stingray / Urolophus jamaicensis: [diversity] 1. example of diversity of Caribbean sharks, rays, and marine mammals. [Photo]

yellow stingray / Urolophus jamaicensis: [danger, sting] 1. morphology of sting in tail. [Photo]

yellow stingray / Urolophus jamaicensis: [ambush predator, camouflage] 1. may attack from a buried location. [Photo]

yellow stingray / Urolophus jamaicensis: [defense, hide] 1. burrow in sand during daytime or when threatened. [Photo]

by the wind sailor / Velella sp.: [diversity] 1. an example of an hydrozoan relative of Caribbean stony corals. [Photo]

green alga / Ventricaria ventricosa: [herbivory, nutrition] 1. type of single-cell alga that is eaten by lettuce slugs Elysia crispata and is the means whereby the slug obtains its photosynthetic chloroplasts useful in its own nutrition. [Photo]

worm snail / Vermicularia sp.: [feeding, mucus, suspension-feeding] 1. its feeding mode is mucus-net suspension-feeding. [Video]

worm snail / Vermicularia sp.: [feeding, mucus, suspension-feeding] 1. its feeding mode is mucus-net suspension-feeding. [Photo]

worm snail / Vermicularia sp.: [photo courtesy] 1. photograph courtesy Anne Dupont, Florida. Dupont [Photo]

carrier shell / Xenophora sp.: [camouflage, defense] 1. glues old shells to its own shell-edge, likely for camouflage protection from predators. [Photo]

carrier shell / Xenophora sp.: [quiz] 1. quiz on possible function of carrier shells Xenophora spp. attaching other shells to itself. [Photo]

giant barrel sponge / Xestospongia muta: [spawn] 1. In Carrie Bow Cay, Belize these sponges spawn synchronously in springtime. Ritson-Williams et al. 2005 [Photo]

barrel sponge / Xestospongia muta: [parasitism] 1. comparative study on the extent to which parasitic zoanthids interfere with water flow through a sponge. Lewis & Finelli 2015 [Photo]

barrel sponge / Xestospongia  muta: [diversity] 1. example of diversity of Caribbean sponges. [Photo]

barrel sponge / Xestospongia  muta: [competition, space] 1. coral knobs of Madracis sp. maintain distinct "stand-off" distance from a barrel sponge . [Photo]

barrel sponge / Xestospongia  muta: [competition, overgrowth] 1. overgrown by green alga Caulerpa racemosa. [Photo]

barrel sponge / Xestospongia  muta: [competition, overgrowth, disease] 1. algae overgrowing wound-spots on other organisms, such as this filamentous red alga, appear as a disease. [Photo]

barrel sponge / Xestospongia  muta: [chemical, danger] 1. video of sponges just to illustrate that some have toxic chemicals. [Video]

sponge / Xestospongia  muta: [defense, experiment, spicule] 1. incorporation of spicules from this sponge into food-pellets does not decrease palatability to bluehead wrassses Thallosoma bifasciatum . Chanas & Pawlik 1995 [Photo, Graph]

barrel sponge / Xestospongia  muta: [experiment, predation] 1. records made of bitings on this species in Key Largo, Florida over a 10h period by different species of parrotfishes and angelfishes. Dunlap & Pawlik 1998 [Photo]

barrel sponge / Xestospongia  muta: [bacteria, nutrition, photosynthesis, primary productivity] 1. have photosynthetic bacteria in their tissues for nutrition. [Video]

barrel sponge / Xestospongia  muta: [video courtesy] 1. video courrtesy Andy Stockbridge, Belize. Stockbridge [Video]

barrel sponge / Xestospongia  muta: [defense, shell, size refuge, structure] 1. adult size is too big for most predators to eat. [Photo]

barrel sponge / Xestospongia  muta: [peril, recreation] 1. A study in Florida shows that SCUBA-divers routinely touch or fin live corals even when specifically advised not to do so. 2. an example of careful management of resources by Roatan dive-leaders. Talge 1992 [Photo]

mat zoanthid / Zoanthus pulchellus: [competition, overgrowth, plankton, space] 1. zoanthids are generally aggressive overgrowth competitors. [Video]

mat zoanthid / Zoanthus pulchellus: [chemical, defense, toxicity] 1. views of zoanthid colonies. [Video]

mat zoanthid / Zoanthus pulchellus: [chemical, defense, toxicity] 1. views of zoanthid colonies. 2. also Gleibs & Mebs 1999 Toxicon 37: 1521. Mebs & Gleibs 1997 [Photo]